New International Version

Leviticus 11:1-47

Clean and Unclean Food

1The Lord said to Moses and Aaron, 2“Say to the Israelites: ‘Of all the animals that live on land, these are the ones you may eat: 3You may eat any animal that has a divided hoof and that chews the cud.

4“ ‘There are some that only chew the cud or only have a divided hoof, but you must not eat them. The camel, though it chews the cud, does not have a divided hoof; it is ceremonially unclean for you. 5The hyrax, though it chews the cud, does not have a divided hoof; it is unclean for you. 6The rabbit, though it chews the cud, does not have a divided hoof; it is unclean for you. 7And the pig, though it has a divided hoof, does not chew the cud; it is unclean for you. 8You must not eat their meat or touch their carcasses; they are unclean for you.

9“ ‘Of all the creatures living in the water of the seas and the streams you may eat any that have fins and scales. 10But all creatures in the seas or streams that do not have fins and scales—whether among all the swarming things or among all the other living creatures in the water—you are to regard as unclean. 11And since you are to regard them as unclean, you must not eat their meat; you must regard their carcasses as unclean. 12Anything living in the water that does not have fins and scales is to be regarded as unclean by you.

13“ ‘These are the birds you are to regard as unclean and not eat because they are unclean: the eagle,11:13 The precise identification of some of the birds, insects and animals in this chapter is uncertain. the vulture, the black vulture, 14the red kite, any kind of black kite, 15any kind of raven, 16the horned owl, the screech owl, the gull, any kind of hawk, 17the little owl, the cormorant, the great owl, 18the white owl, the desert owl, the osprey, 19the stork, any kind of heron, the hoopoe and the bat.

20“ ‘All flying insects that walk on all fours are to be regarded as unclean by you. 21There are, however, some flying insects that walk on all fours that you may eat: those that have jointed legs for hopping on the ground. 22Of these you may eat any kind of locust, katydid, cricket or grasshopper. 23But all other flying insects that have four legs you are to regard as unclean.

24“ ‘You will make yourselves unclean by these; whoever touches their carcasses will be unclean till evening. 25Whoever picks up one of their carcasses must wash their clothes, and they will be unclean till evening.

26“ ‘Every animal that does not have a divided hoof or that does not chew the cud is unclean for you; whoever touches the carcass of any of them will be unclean. 27Of all the animals that walk on all fours, those that walk on their paws are unclean for you; whoever touches their carcasses will be unclean till evening. 28Anyone who picks up their carcasses must wash their clothes, and they will be unclean till evening. These animals are unclean for you.

29“ ‘Of the animals that move along the ground, these are unclean for you: the weasel, the rat, any kind of great lizard, 30the gecko, the monitor lizard, the wall lizard, the skink and the chameleon. 31Of all those that move along the ground, these are unclean for you. Whoever touches them when they are dead will be unclean till evening. 32When one of them dies and falls on something, that article, whatever its use, will be unclean, whether it is made of wood, cloth, hide or sackcloth. Put it in water; it will be unclean till evening, and then it will be clean. 33If one of them falls into a clay pot, everything in it will be unclean, and you must break the pot. 34Any food you are allowed to eat that has come into contact with water from any such pot is unclean, and any liquid that is drunk from such a pot is unclean. 35Anything that one of their carcasses falls on becomes unclean; an oven or cooking pot must be broken up. They are unclean, and you are to regard them as unclean. 36A spring, however, or a cistern for collecting water remains clean, but anyone who touches one of these carcasses is unclean. 37If a carcass falls on any seeds that are to be planted, they remain clean. 38But if water has been put on the seed and a carcass falls on it, it is unclean for you.

39“ ‘If an animal that you are allowed to eat dies, anyone who touches its carcass will be unclean till evening. 40Anyone who eats some of its carcass must wash their clothes, and they will be unclean till evening. Anyone who picks up the carcass must wash their clothes, and they will be unclean till evening.

41“ ‘Every creature that moves along the ground is to be regarded as unclean; it is not to be eaten. 42You are not to eat any creature that moves along the ground, whether it moves on its belly or walks on all fours or on many feet; it is unclean. 43Do not defile yourselves by any of these creatures. Do not make yourselves unclean by means of them or be made unclean by them. 44I am the Lord your God; consecrate yourselves and be holy, because I am holy. Do not make yourselves unclean by any creature that moves along the ground. 45I am the Lord, who brought you up out of Egypt to be your God; therefore be holy, because I am holy.

46“ ‘These are the regulations concerning animals, birds, every living thing that moves about in the water and every creature that moves along the ground. 47You must distinguish between the unclean and the clean, between living creatures that may be eaten and those that may not be eaten.’ ”

Japanese Contemporary Bible

レビ記 11:1-47

11

きよい動物と汚れた動物

1さて主は、モーセとアロンに命じました。 2-3「人々に言いなさい。食用にできる動物は、ひづめが分かれ、反芻するものだけである。 4-7らくだ、岩だぬき、野うさぎは食べてはならない。反芻はするが、ひづめが分かれていないからだ。ひづめは分かれているが、反芻しない豚もだめだ。 8これらは肉を食べることはおろか、死体にさわってもいけない。絶対に食用にできない動物である。

9魚は、ひれとうろこがあるものなら、海のものでも川のものでも食べてよい。 10しかし、それ以外の水中動物は絶対に食べてはならない。 11肉を食べてもいけないし、死骸にさわってもいけない。 12くり返すが、ひれとうろこのない水中動物は食べられない。

13-19鳥の中では、次のものは食べてはならない。はげわし、はげたか、みさご(タカ科の鳥)、はやぶさの類全部、とび、からすの類全部、だちょう、よたか、かもめ、たかの類全部、ふくろう、鵜、みみずく、白ふくろう、ペリカン、野がん、こうのとり、さぎの類全部、やつがしら、こうもり。

20飛ぶもので四つ足のものは食べてはならない。 21-22しかし、跳びはねるもの、いなごなどの類は別である。いなご、ばった、大いなご、小いなごなどは食べてかまわない。 23それ以外に飛ぶもので、四つ足のものは食べてはならない。

24その死骸にさわる者はみな、夕方まで汚れる。 25死骸を持ち運んだ者はすぐ衣服を洗いなさい。礼拝規定で汚れた者とみなされ、夕方まで身を慎まなければならない。

26ひづめが完全に分かれていない動物や、反芻しない動物にさわる者は汚れる。 27足の裏のふくらみで歩く動物は食べられない。死骸にさわるだけで夕方まで汚れる。 28死骸を持ち運ぶ者は衣服を洗わなければならない。夕方まで、礼拝規定で汚れた者とみなされる。

29-30地面をはい回る動物のうち、次のものは汚れている。もぐら、とびねずみ、大とかげ類、やもり、わに、とかげ、すなとかげ、カメレオン。

31これらの死骸にさわれば、夕方まで汚れる。 32死骸が何かの上に落ちた場合は、木の容器でも衣服でも敷物でも袋でも、みな汚れる。それにさわった物は何でも水につけなさい。夕方まで汚れるが、また使ってもかまわない。 33土の容器の中に落ちた場合、中の物は何でも汚れる。容器は砕いてしまいなさい。 34汚れた容器の水がかかった食べ物はみな汚れる。汚れた容器に入っている飲み物も汚れる。 35それらの動物の死骸が触れたかまどや炉は汚れたものなので、壊してしまいなさい。 36死骸が泉とか水ために落ちた場合は、水は汚れない。ただし、死骸を引き上げる者は汚れる。 37畑にまく種に死骸が触れても、種は汚れない。 38ただし、ぬれた種の上に落ちた場合は汚れる。

39食用にできる動物が病死した場合は、その死骸にさわれば夕方まで汚れる。 40その肉を食べたり死体を運んだりした者は、衣服を洗いなさい。その者は夕方まで汚れる。

41-42地面をはう動物は食べてはならない。爬虫類のうち、腹ではうもの、足のあるものも含まれる。たくさんの足ではうものも食べてはならない。汚れたものだからだ。 43それにさわって自分を汚してはならない。

44わたしはあなたがたの神、主である。以上のものについて身をきよく保ちなさい。わたしは聖なる者だから、あなたがたも聖なる者になりなさい。地をはい回るものにさわって身を汚さないようにしなさい。 45わたしはあなたがたの神となるために、あなたがたをエジプトから救い出した。だから、わたしが聖なる者であるように、あなたがたも聖なる者にならなければならない。」

46以上が、動物、鳥、水中に住む動物、地をはう動物についての指示です。 47これによって、地上の動物の中で、礼拝規定上どれがきよくて、食べてよいものか、どれが汚れていて、食べてはならないものかの区別ができます。