Hvordan Gud skaber universet
1I begyndelsen skabte Gud himlen og jorden. 2Jorden var øde og tom, og urdybet lå hen i totalt mørke, men Guds Ånd svævede over de mørke vande.
3Så sagde Gud: „Der skal blive lys!” og så var der lys. 4Gud glædede sig over lyset, og han satte skel mellem lyset og mørket. 5Tiden med lys kaldte han dag, og tiden med mørke kaldte han nat. Det blev aften, og det blev morgen. Det var den første dag.
6Så sagde Gud: „Der skal være en hvælving midt i alt vandet til at dele det.” 7Og Gud dannede en hvælving, så vandet ovenfor den blev adskilt fra vandet nedenfor den. 8Hvælvingen kaldte han himmel. Det blev aften, og det blev morgen. Det var den anden dag.
9Dernæst sagde Gud: „Vandet under himmelhvælvingen skal samle sig, så det tørre land kommer til syne.” Og sådan skete det. 10Det tørre land kaldte han jord, og de steder, hvor vandet var, kaldte han hav; og Gud glædede sig over sit værk.
11Derpå sagde Gud: „Grønne planter, der bærer frø, skal spire frem af jorden, og frugttræer, som bærer frugt med kerner, skal vokse op, så de kan formere sig, hver efter sin art.” Og sådan blev det. 12Op af jorden spirede grønne planter, som bar frø, og træer, som bar frugt med kerner, hver efter sin art. Og Gud glædede sig over sit værk. 13Det blev aften, og det blev morgen. Det var den tredje dag.
14-15Så sagde Gud: „Der skal være lysgivere på himmelhvælvingen, som sætter skel mellem dag og nat, og som markerer årstidernes skiften og festdagenes begyndelse.” Og sådan blev det. 16Gud frembragte to store lys på himlen til at skinne på jorden, det største lys, solen, til at herske om dagen, og det mindre, månen, til at herske om natten sammen med stjernerne. 17Han satte dem på himmelhvælvingen til at lyse på jorden, 18til at sætte skel mellem dagen og natten. Og han glædede sig over sit værk. 19Det blev aften, og det blev morgen. Det var den fjerde dag.
20Dernæst sagde Gud: „Vandet skal vrimle med fisk og andet liv, og der skal være et mylder af fugle i luften.” Og sådan blev det. 21Gud skabte de store havdyr og en mangfoldighed af fisk og fugle; og han glædede sig over sit værk. 22Han velsignede dem og sagde: „Formér jer og bliv mange. Fiskene skal fylde havene, og fuglene skal fylde luften.” 23Det blev aften, og det blev morgen. Det var den femte dag.
24Derpå sagde Gud: „Af jorden skal der fremstå alle slags dyr—kvæg, krybdyr og alle mulige vilde dyr.” Og sådan blev det. 25Gud dannede alle slags vilde dyr, krybdyr og husdyr, alle i stand til at formere sig, hver efter sin art; og Gud glædede sig over sit værk.
26Så sagde Gud: „Lad os frembringe et levende væsen, der ligner os. Det skal herske over alt dyrelivet—fiskene i havet, fuglene i luften og de tamme og vilde dyr på jorden.” 27Da skabte Gud to mennesker, som lignede ham. De blev skabt som mand og kvinde. 28Gud velsignede dem og sagde: „Formér jer og bliv mange, bred jer over hele jorden og tag den i besiddelse! Hersk over fiskene, fuglene og alle de andre dyr på jorden.” 29Gud fortsatte: „Se! Jeg giver jer alle de frøbærende planter på jorden som føde, og I må også spise frugt fra de mange frugttræer. 30Jeg giver græsset og alt grønt til føde for dyrene og fuglene.” Og sådan blev det. 31Gud betragtede nu hele sit skaberværk, og han var ovenud tilfreds med det. Det blev aften, og det blev morgen. Det var den sjette dag.
1In the beginning God ([a]Elohim) [b]created [by forming from nothing] the heavens and the earth. 2 The earth was [c]formless and void or a waste and emptiness, and darkness was upon the face of the deep [primeval ocean that covered the unformed earth]. The Spirit of God was moving (hovering, brooding) over the face of the waters. 3 And God said, [d]“Let there be light”; and there was light. 4 God saw that the light was good (pleasing, useful) and [e]He affirmed and sustained it; and God separated the light [distinguishing it] from the darkness. 5 And God called the light day, and the darkness He called night. And there was [f]evening and there was [g]morning, one day.
6 And God said, “Let there be an [h]expanse [of the sky] in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the waters [below the expanse] from the waters [above the expanse].” 7 And God made the expanse [of sky] and separated the waters which were under the expanse from the waters which were above the expanse; and it was so [just as He commanded]. 8 God called the expanse [of sky] heaven. And there was evening and there was morning, a second day.
9 Then God said, “Let the waters below the heavens be gathered into one place [of standing, pooling together], and let the dry land appear”; and it was so. 10 God called the dry land earth, and the gathering of the waters He called seas; and God saw that this was good (pleasing, useful) and He affirmed and sustained it. 11 So God said, “Let the earth sprout [tender] [i]vegetation, [j]plants yielding seed, and fruit trees bearing fruit according to (limited to, consistent with) their kind, whose seed is in them upon the earth”; and it was so. 12 The earth sprouted and abundantly produced vegetation, plants yielding seed according to their kind, and trees bearing fruit with seed in them, according to their kind; and God saw that it was good and He affirmed and sustained it. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, a third day.
14 Then God said, “Let there be light-bearers (sun, moon, stars) in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night, and let them be useful for signs (tokens) [of God’s provident care], and for marking seasons, days, and years; 15 and let them be useful as lights in the expanse of the heavens to provide light on the earth”; and it was so, [just as He commanded]. 16 God made the two great lights—the greater light (the sun) to rule the day, and the lesser light (the moon) to rule the night; He made the [galaxies of] stars also [that is, all the amazing wonders in the heavens]. 17 God placed them in the expanse of the heavens to provide light upon the earth, 18 to rule over the day and the night, and to separate the light from the darkness; and God saw that it was good and He affirmed and sustained it. 19 And there was evening and there was morning, a fourth day.
20 Then God said, “Let the waters swarm and abundantly produce living creatures, and let birds soar above the earth [k]in the open expanse of the heavens.” 21 God created the great sea monsters and every living creature that moves, with which the waters swarmed according to their kind, and every winged bird according to its kind; and God saw that it was good and He affirmed and sustained it. 22 And God blessed them, saying, “Be fruitful, multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let birds multiply on the earth.” 23 And there was evening and there was morning, a fifth day.
24 Then God said, “Let the earth bring forth living creatures according to (limited to, consistent with) their kind: livestock, crawling things, and wild animals of the earth according to their kinds”; and it was so [because He had spoken them into creation]. 25 So God made the wild animals of the earth according to their kind, and the cattle according to their kind, and everything that creeps and crawls on the earth according to its kind; and God saw that it was good (pleasing, useful) and He affirmed and sustained it.
26 Then God said, “Let Us (Father, Son, Holy Spirit) make man in Our image, according to Our likeness [not physical, but a spiritual personality and moral likeness]; and let them have complete authority over the fish of the sea, the birds of the air, the cattle, and over the entire earth, and over everything that creeps and crawls on the earth.” 27 So God created man in His own image, in the image and likeness of God He created him; male and female He created them. 28 And God blessed them [granting them certain authority] and said to them, “Be fruitful, multiply, and fill the earth, and subjugate it [putting it under your power]; and rule over (dominate) the fish of the sea, the birds of the air, and every living thing that moves upon the earth.” 29 So God said, “Behold, I have given you every plant yielding seed that is on the surface of the entire earth, and every tree which has fruit yielding seed; it shall be food for you; 30 and to all the animals on the earth and to every bird of the air and to everything that moves on the ground—to everything in which there is the breath of life—I have given every green plant for food”; and it was so [because He commanded it]. 31 God saw everything that He had made, and behold, it was very good and He validated it completely. And there was evening and there was morning, a sixth day.
Notas al pie
- Genesis 1:1 This is originally a plural form based on el (root meaning: strength), which itself is used to refer to God in compounds like El Shaddai (Almighty God). The word el is also used to refer to false gods, so the context determines whether Elohim means “God” or is better understood as “gods” (elohim).
- Genesis 1:1 Heb bara. Here and in 1:21, God created from nothing which is something only He can do. In 1:27, God used preexisting materials (man from the dust of the ground; Eve from Adam’s rib); each use of the word bara (“create”) must be considered in its specific context.
- Genesis 1:2 The Hebrew text here has two rhyming words, tohu and bohu, which have similar meanings of “wasteness” and “emptiness.” The construction is a figure of speech called hendiadys, in which two words are used together to express the same idea. The meaning is that the earth had no clearly discernible features at this point in creation but essentially was a mass of raw materials. This proves to be very important from philosophical and scientific viewpoints, because it documents the fact that the raw matter of the earth—and by extension, of the universe—did not coexist eternally with God, but was created by Him ex nihilo (Latin “out of nothing”).
- Genesis 1:3 This is not in the imperative mood (the ordinary grammatical form for a command), but God willed these creative events into existence. It is the voluntative mood in Hebrew. This translates, “It is My will that this happen.” English does not have the voluntative mood, which includes the jussive and cohortative forms. When “let” is used in this way, it represents a command not in the imperative mood, but rather an expression of God’s will, the jussive form. God literally commanded (willed) the world into existence.
- Genesis 1:4 “He affirmed and sustained it” is understood (deduced) from the context. The italic “and” alerts the reader or student of Hebrew that the word or words that follow are amplifications not found in the Hebrew text itself, but implied by it or by contextual factors.
- Genesis 1:5 The Hebrew word translated “evening” indicates dusk or sunset.
- Genesis 1:5 The Hebrew word translated “morning” indicates the time when it is getting light (dawn).
- Genesis 1:6 Or a firmament.
- Genesis 1:11 Or grass.
- Genesis 1:11 Or herbs.
- Genesis 1:20 Lit over the face of.