New International Version

Exodus 22:1-31

Protection of Property

In Hebrew texts 22:1 is numbered 21:37, and 22:2-31 is numbered 22:1-30. 1“Whoever steals an ox or a sheep and slaughters it or sells it must pay back five head of cattle for the ox and four sheep for the sheep.

2“If a thief is caught breaking in at night and is struck a fatal blow, the defender is not guilty of bloodshed; 3but if it happens after sunrise, the defender is guilty of bloodshed.

“Anyone who steals must certainly make restitution, but if they have nothing, they must be sold to pay for their theft. 4If the stolen animal is found alive in their possession—whether ox or donkey or sheep—they must pay back double.

5“If anyone grazes their livestock in a field or vineyard and lets them stray and they graze in someone else’s field, the offender must make restitution from the best of their own field or vineyard.

6“If a fire breaks out and spreads into thornbushes so that it burns shocks of grain or standing grain or the whole field, the one who started the fire must make restitution.

7“If anyone gives a neighbor silver or goods for safekeeping and they are stolen from the neighbor’s house, the thief, if caught, must pay back double. 8But if the thief is not found, the owner of the house must appear before the judges, and they must22:8 Or before God, and he will determine whether the owner of the house has laid hands on the other person’s property. 9In all cases of illegal possession of an ox, a donkey, a sheep, a garment, or any other lost property about which somebody says, ‘This is mine,’ both parties are to bring their cases before the judges.22:9 Or before God The one whom the judges declare22:9 Or whom God declares guilty must pay back double to the other.

10“If anyone gives a donkey, an ox, a sheep or any other animal to their neighbor for safekeeping and it dies or is injured or is taken away while no one is looking, 11the issue between them will be settled by the taking of an oath before the Lord that the neighbor did not lay hands on the other person’s property. The owner is to accept this, and no restitution is required. 12But if the animal was stolen from the neighbor, restitution must be made to the owner. 13If it was torn to pieces by a wild animal, the neighbor shall bring in the remains as evidence and shall not be required to pay for the torn animal.

14“If anyone borrows an animal from their neighbor and it is injured or dies while the owner is not present, they must make restitution. 15But if the owner is with the animal, the borrower will not have to pay. If the animal was hired, the money paid for the hire covers the loss.

Social Responsibility

16“If a man seduces a virgin who is not pledged to be married and sleeps with her, he must pay the bride-price, and she shall be his wife. 17If her father absolutely refuses to give her to him, he must still pay the bride-price for virgins.

18“Do not allow a sorceress to live.

19“Anyone who has sexual relations with an animal is to be put to death.

20“Whoever sacrifices to any god other than the Lord must be destroyed.22:20 The Hebrew term refers to the irrevocable giving over of things or persons to the Lord, often by totally destroying them.

21“Do not mistreat or oppress a foreigner, for you were foreigners in Egypt.

22“Do not take advantage of the widow or the fatherless. 23If you do and they cry out to me, I will certainly hear their cry. 24My anger will be aroused, and I will kill you with the sword; your wives will become widows and your children fatherless.

25“If you lend money to one of my people among you who is needy, do not treat it like a business deal; charge no interest. 26If you take your neighbor’s cloak as a pledge, return it by sunset, 27because that cloak is the only covering your neighbor has. What else can they sleep in? When they cry out to me, I will hear, for I am compassionate.

28“Do not blaspheme God22:28 Or Do not revile the judges or curse the ruler of your people.

29“Do not hold back offerings from your granaries or your vats.22:29 The meaning of the Hebrew for this phrase is uncertain.

“You must give me the firstborn of your sons. 30Do the same with your cattle and your sheep. Let them stay with their mothers for seven days, but give them to me on the eighth day.

31“You are to be my holy people. So do not eat the meat of an animal torn by wild beasts; throw it to the dogs.

Japanese Contemporary Bible

出エジプト記 22:1-31




2どろぼうが家に押し入るところを見つけ、捕まえて殺しても、殺した者は無罪である。 3ただし、昼間であれば殺人とみなされ、有罪となる。どろぼうして捕まった場合は、損害を全額弁償しなければならない。できなければ、奴隷として身を売ってでも弁償する。




7隣人に預けた金や物が盗まれた場合、どろぼうが捕まれば、その犯人が損害の倍額を支払う。 8犯人が捕まらない場合は、貴重品を預かった者は神の前で裁判を受け、自分が盗んだのではないことをはっきりさせなければならない。


10ろば、牛、羊、そのほかどんな動物でも、人に預け、死ぬか傷つくか盗まれるかした場合、それが実際にどうであったかを報告する目撃者がいない場合は、 11預かった者は、自分が盗んだのではないことを神に誓わなければならない。持ち主がその言い分を受け入れれば、弁償の必要はない。 12しかし、その家畜が確かに盗まれたのであれば、預かっていた者は持ち主に弁償しなければならない。 13また、野獣に襲われたのであれば、証拠として、食い荒らされた死体を持って来なければならない。この場合は弁償の必要はない。

14人から家畜を借り、それが傷つくか死ぬかして、しかも、持ち主がその場に居合わせなかった場合は、借りた者が弁償しなければならない。 15しかし、持ち主が居合わせた場合は弁償の必要はない。ただし、有料で借りたものについては、借り賃はきちんと払わなければならない。


16だれとも婚約していない女性を誘惑し、彼女と関係を結んだ者は、しきたりどおりの結納金を支払って彼女を妻にしなければならない。 17しかし、父親が結婚に反対の場合は慰謝料を払う。





22未亡人や孤児につらく当たってはならない。 23少しでもそんなことがあれば、彼らはわたしに助けを求めるだろうし、わたしは必ず彼らを助ける。 24わたしの怒りは燃え上がり、剣であなたがたを殺す。あなたがたの妻が未亡人に、子が孤児になる。

25困っている仲間のヘブル人(イスラエル人)に金を貸す場合、利息を取る普通の取り引きをしてはならない。 26服を借金のかたに取ったら、夕方には返さなければならない。 27おそらくそれが、彼の体を暖める唯一の物だからである。着る物もなくて、どうして眠ることができるだろう。もし返さなければ、彼はわたしに助けを求めるだろう。わたしは願いを聞き、彼を助ける。わたしは情け深いからである。