Amplified Bible

Exodus 21

Ordinances for the People

1“Now these are the ordinances (laws) which you shall set before the Israelites:

“If you purchase a Hebrew servant [because of his debt or poverty], he shall serve six years, and in the seventh [year] he shall leave as a free man, paying nothing. If he came [to you] alone, he shall leave alone; if he came married, then his wife shall leave with him. If his master gives him a wife, and she gives birth to sons or daughters, the wife and her children shall belong to her master, and he shall leave [your service] alone. But if the servant plainly says, ‘I love my master, my wife and my children; I will not leave as a free man,’ then his master shall bring him to God [that is, to the judges who act in God’s name], then he shall bring him to the door or doorpost. And his master shall pierce his ear with an awl (strong needle); and he shall serve him for life.

“If a man sells his daughter to be a female servant, she shall not go free [after six years] as male servants do. If she does not please her master who has chosen her for himself [as a wife], he shall let her be redeemed [by her family]. He does not have the authority to sell her to a foreign people, because he has been unfair to her. If her master chooses her [as a wife] for his son, he shall act toward her as if she were legally his daughter. 10 If her master marries another wife, he may not reduce her food, her clothing, or her privilege as a wife. 11 If he does not do these three things for her, then shall she leave free, without payment of money.

Personal Injuries

12 “Whoever strikes a man so that he dies must be put to death. 13 However, [a]if he did not lie in wait [for him], but God allowed him to fall into his hand, then I will establish for you a [b]place to which he may escape [for protection until duly tried]. 14 But if a man acts intentionally against another and kills him by [design through] treachery, you are to take him from My altar [to which he may have fled for protection], so that he may be put to death.

15 “Whoever strikes his father or his mother must be put to death.

16 “Whoever kidnaps a man, whether he sells him or is found with him in his possession, must be put to death.

17 “Whoever [c]curses his father or his mother or treats them contemptuously must be put to death.

18 “If men quarrel and one strikes another with a stone or with his fist, and he does not die but is confined to bed, 19 if he gets up and walks around leaning on his cane, then the one who struck him shall be left [physically] unpunished; he must only pay for his loss of time [at work], and the costs [of treatment and recuperation] until he is thoroughly healed.

20 “If a man strikes his male or his female servant with a staff and the servant dies at his hand, he must be punished. 21 If, however, the servant survives for a day or two, the offender shall not be punished, for the [injured] servant is his own property.

22 “If men fight with each other and injure a pregnant woman so that she gives birth prematurely [and the baby lives], yet there is no further injury, the one who hurt her must be punished with a fine [paid] to the woman’s husband, as much as the judges decide. 23 But if there is any further injury, then you shall require [as a penalty] life for life, 24 [d]eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, 25 burn for burn, wound for wound, bruise for bruise.

26 “If a man hits the eye of his male servant or female servant and it is destroyed, he must let the servant go free because of [the loss of] the eye. 27 And if he knocks out the tooth of his male servant or female servant, he must let the servant go free because of [the loss of] the tooth.

28 “If an ox gores a man or a woman to death, the ox must be stoned and its meat shall not be eaten; but the owner of the ox shall be cleared [of responsibility]. 29 But if the ox has tried to gore on a previous occasion, and its owner has been warned, but has not kept it confined and it kills a man or a woman, the ox shall be stoned and its owner shall be put to death as well. 30 If a ransom is demanded of him [in return for his life], then he shall give whatever is demanded for the redemption of his life. 31 If the ox has gored another’s son or daughter, he shall be dealt with according to this same rule. 32 If the ox gores a male or a female servant, the owner shall give to the servant’s master thirty shekels of silver [the purchase price for a slave], and the ox shall be stoned.

33 “If a man leaves a pit open, or digs a pit and does not cover it, and an ox or a donkey falls into it, 34 the owner of the pit shall make restitution; he shall give money to the animal’s owner, but the dead [animal] shall be his.

35 “If one man’s ox injures another’s so that it dies, then they shall sell the live ox and divide the proceeds equally; they shall also divide the dead ox [between them]. 36 Or if it is known that the ox was previously in the habit of goring, and its owner has not kept it confined, he must make restitution of ox for ox, and the dead [animal] shall be his.

Footnotes

  1. Exodus 21:13 I.e. if the act causing the death of another was unintentional.
  2. Exodus 21:13 I.e. after the children of Israel possessed the promised land, six cities of refuge were established.
  3. Exodus 21:17 The one who dishonors his parents in this way also dishonors God by violating God’s created order of honor.
  4. Exodus 21:24 The concept of reciprocal punishment for a wrongful injury is applied mainly to special cases not already covered by more complex laws.

Bibelen på hverdagsdansk

2 Mosebog 21

Hebræiske slaver

1Giv Israels folk følgende forordninger:

Hvis du køber dig en hebræisk slave, må du kun beholde ham i seks år. I det syvende år skal han frigives uden betaling. Hvis han kom til dig som ugift, men i mellemtiden har giftet sig, er det kun ham selv, der skal frigives. Men hvis han i forvejen var gift, skal hans kone frigives sammen med ham. Hvis du har givet ham en kone i hans slavetid, og han og konen har fået børn, tilhører konen og børnene dig, men han selv skal frigives. Men hvis slaven erklærer: ‚Jeg elsker min herre, min kone og mine børn, så jeg ønsker ikke at blive frigivet,’ så skal du overgive ham til Gud og stille ham op ad døren eller dørstolpen og gennembore hans øre med en syl, hvorefter han skal være din slave på livstid.

Hvis en mand derimod sælger sin datter som slave, skal hun ikke frigives efter de seks år sådan som en mandlig slave. Men hvis hendes herre gifter sig med hende og senere ikke er tilfreds med hende, skal han give hende mulighed for at blive købt fri af sin far. Han har ikke lov til at sælge hende videre til andre. Hvis han lader sin søn gifte sig med hende, skal han respektere hende som sin egen datter. 10 Hvis han selv senere tager sig en kone nummer to, må han ikke nægte sin slavekone mad, tøj og ægteskabelige rettigheder. 11 Opfylder han ikke disse krav, skal hun frigives uden betaling.

Personlig overlast

12 Enhver, der begår drab, skal selv lide døden. 13 Men er det uagtsomt manddrab, vil jeg anvise steder, hvor en sådan person kan søge beskyttelse imod at blive dræbt som hævn. 14 Er det derimod overlagt mord, skal han lide døden, også selv om han søger beskyttelse ved Herrens alter.

15 Enhver, der angriber sin far eller mor, skal lide døden.

16 Enhver, der kidnapper en anden, skal dø, uanset om han har solgt sit offer eller beholdt ham.

17 Enhver, der forbander sin far eller mor, skal lide døden.

18 Hvis to mænd kommer op at slås, og den ene rammer den anden med en sten eller med en knytnæve og kvæster ham, så han må holde sengen, 19 og hvis det ikke er værre, end at han kan gå omkring, om nødvendigt støttet til sin stok, så skal gerningsmanden ikke straffes ud over at betale for offerets tabte arbejdsfortjeneste og i øvrigt afholde udgifterne til medicin og lægehjælp.

20 Hvis en mand slår sin mandlige eller kvindelige slave så hårdt med en kæp, at vedkommende dør, skal han straffes. 21 Men hvis slaven kommer sig efter en dag eller to, skal slavens herre ikke straffes, for den tabte arbejdsfortjeneste er straf i sig selv.

22 Hvis to mænd under et slagsmål kommer til at støde til en gravid kvinde, så barnet bliver født, men der ellers ikke sker noget, skal den skyldige betale erstatning, efter hvad kvindens mand forlanger, og domstolene kan godkende.

23 Hvis en person gør en anden fortræd, skal han straffes i forhold til den skade, han har forvoldt: liv for liv, 24 øje for øje, tand for tand, hånd for hånd, fod for fod, 25 brandsår for brandsår, læsion for læsion, skramme for skramme.

26 Hvis en mand slår sin mandlige eller kvindelige slave i øjet, så øjet bliver ødelagt, skal han frigive slaven som erstatning for øjet. 27 Hvis en mand slår en tand ud på sin mandlige eller kvindelige slave, skal han frigive slaven som erstatning for tanden.

28 Hvis en tyr stanger en mand eller kvinde ihjel, skal den stenes, og dens kød må ikke spises, men tyrens ejer skal ikke straffes for ulykken. 29 Men hvis den samme tyr tidligere har stanget nogen, og ejeren er blevet advaret, men ikke har taget nogen forholdsregler, og den så stanger nogen ihjel, skal den stenes og ejeren skal lide døden. 30 Dog kan han beholde livet, hvis den dødes slægtninge vil gå med til at acceptere en løsesum som erstatning.

31 Samme lov gælder, hvis tyren stanger en dreng eller en pige, 32 men hvis den stanger en mandlig eller kvindelig slave, skal slavens herre have en erstatning på 30 sølvstykker, og tyren skal stenes.

33 Hvis en mand tager dækslet af en cisterne eller graver en brønd og ikke dækker hullet til, og en ko eller et æsel falder i brønden, 34 skal han betale fuld erstatning for det døde dyr, men så tilhører det også ham.

35 Hvis en mands tyr stanger en anden mands tyr ihjel, skal de to ejere sælge den levende tyr og dele pengene imellem sig, og de skal også deles om den døde tyr. 36 Men hvis det er kendt, at tyren før har villet stange, og ejeren ikke har taget nogen forholdsregler, skal han betale fuld erstatning for den døde tyr, som så bliver hans ejendom.