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Ester 1

A Rainha Vasti Afronta o Rei

1Foi no tempo de Xerxes[a], que reinou sobre cento e vinte e sete províncias, desde a Índia até a Etiópia[b]. Naquela época o rei Xerxes reinava em seu trono na cidadela de Susã e, no terceiro ano do seu reinado, deu um banquete a todos os seus nobres e oficiais. Estavam presentes os líderes militares da Pérsia e da Média, os príncipes e os nobres das províncias.

Durante cento e oitenta dias ele mostrou a enorme riqueza de seu reino e o esplendor e a glória de sua majestade. Terminados esses dias, o rei deu um banquete no jardim interno do palácio, de sete dias para todo o povo que estava na cidadela de Susã, do mais rico ao mais pobre. O jardim possuía forrações em branco e azul, presas com cordas de linho branco e tecido vermelho, ligadas por anéis de prata a colunas de mármore. Tinha assentos de ouro e de prata num piso de mosaicos de pórfiro, mármore, madrepérola e outras pedras preciosas. Pela generosidade do rei, o vinho real era servido em grande quantidade, em diferentes taças de ouro. Por ordem real, cada convidado tinha permissão de beber o quanto desejasse, pois o rei tinha dado instruções a todos os mordomos do palácio que os servissem à vontade.

Enquanto isso, a rainha Vasti também oferecia um banquete às mulheres, no palácio do rei Xerxes.

10 No sétimo dia, quando o rei Xerxes já estava alegre por causa do vinho, ordenou aos sete oficiais que o serviam — Meumã, Bizta, Harbona, Bigtá, Abagta, Zetar e Carcas — 11 que trouxessem à sua presença a rainha Vasti, usando a coroa real. Ele queria mostrar aos seus súditos e aos nobres a beleza dela, pois era de fato muito bonita. 12 Quando, porém, os oficiais transmitiram a ordem do rei à rainha Vasti, esta se recusou a ir, e o rei ficou furioso e indignado.

13 Como era costume o rei consultar especialistas em questões de direito e justiça, ele mandou chamar os sábios que entendiam das leis 14 e que eram muito amigos do rei: Carsena, Setar, Adamata, Társis, Meres, Marsena e Memucã; eles eram os sete nobres da Pérsia e da Média que tinham acesso direto ao rei e eram os mais importantes do reino.

15 O rei lhes perguntou: “De acordo com a lei, o que se deve fazer à rainha Vasti? Ela não obedeceu à ordem do rei Xerxes transmitida pelos oficiais”.

16 Então Memucã respondeu na presença do rei e dos nobres: “A rainha Vasti não ofendeu somente o rei, mas também todos os nobres e os povos de todas as províncias do rei Xerxes, 17 pois a conduta da rainha se tornará conhecida por todas as mulheres, e assim também elas desprezarão seus maridos e dirão: ‘O rei Xerxes ordenou que a rainha Vasti fosse à sua presença, mas ela não foi’. 18 Hoje mesmo as mulheres persas e medas da nobreza que ficarem sabendo do comportamento da rainha agirão da mesma maneira com todos os nobres do rei. Isso provocará desrespeito e discórdia sem fim.

19 “Por isso, se for do agrado do rei, que ele emita um decreto real, e que seja incluído na lei irrevogável da Pérsia e da Média, determinando que Vasti nunca mais compareça na presença do rei Xerxes. Também dê o rei a sua posição de rainha a outra que seja melhor do que ela. 20 Assim, quando o decreto real for proclamado em todo o seu imenso domínio, todas as mulheres respeitarão seus maridos, do mais rico ao mais pobre”.

21 O rei e seus nobres aceitaram de bom grado o conselho, de modo que o rei pôs em prática a proposta de Memucã. 22 Para isso, enviou cartas a todas as partes do reino, a cada província e a cada povo, em sua própria escrita e em sua própria língua, proclamando que todo homem deveria mandar em sua própria casa.

Notas al pie

  1. 1.1 Hebraico: Assuero, variante do nome persa Xerxes.
  2. 1.1 Hebraico: Cuxe.

Amplified Bible

Esther 1

The Banquets of the King

1It was in the days of Ahasuerus ([a]Xerxes) who reigned from India to Ethiopia (Cush) over 127 provinces, in those days when King Ahasuerus sat on his royal throne which was at the citadel in [b]Susa [the capital of the Persian Empire], in the third year of his reign he held a banquet for all his officials and his attendants. The army officers of Persia and Media, the nobles and the officials of the provinces were there in his presence. And he displayed the riches of his glorious kingdom and the splendor of his great majesty for many days, 180 days in all.

When these days were completed, the king held a banquet for all the people who were present at the citadel in Susa [the capital], from the greatest [in importance] to the least, a seven-day feast in the courtyard of the garden of the king’s palace. There were curtains (draperies) of fine white and violet linen fastened with cords of fine purple linen to silver rings and marble columns. The couches of gold and silver rested on a mosaic floor of [c]porphyry, marble, mother-of-pearl, and precious colored stones. Drinks were served in various kinds of golden goblets, and the royal wine was plentiful, in accordance with the generosity of the king. The drinking was carried on in accordance with the law; no one was compelled [to drink], for the king had directed each official of his household to comply with each guest’s wishes. Queen Vashti also held a [separate] banquet for the women in the palace of King Ahasuerus.

Queen Vashti’s Refusal

10 On the seventh day, when the king’s heart was joyful with wine (in high spirits), he commanded Mehuman, Biztha, Harbona, Bigtha, Abagtha, Zethar, and Carkas, the seven [d]eunuchs who served in the presence of King Ahasuerus [as his attendants], 11 to bring Queen Vashti before the king, [e]wearing her royal crown (high turban), to display her beauty before the people and the officials, for she was lovely to see. 12 But Queen Vashti refused to come at the king’s command, which was delivered [to her] by the eunuchs. So the king became extremely angry and burned with rage.

13 Then the king spoke to the wise men who understood the times [asking for their advice]—for it was the custom of the king to speak before all those who were familiar with law and legal matters— 14 and who were close to him [as advisors]: Carshena, Shethar, Admatha, Tarshish, Meres, Marsena, and Memucan, the seven officials of Persia and Media who had access to the king and were ranked highest in the kingdom. 15 [He said,] “According to the law, what is to be done with Queen Vashti because she did not obey the command of King Ahasuerus which was conveyed by the eunuchs?” 16 And Memucan answered in the presence of the king and the officials, “Vashti the queen has not only wronged the king but [also] all the officials (royal representatives) and all the peoples who are in all the provinces of King Ahasuerus. 17 For the queen’s conduct will become known to all women, causing them to look on their husbands with contempt (disrespect), since they will say, ‘King Ahasuerus commanded Queen Vashti to be brought before him, but she did not come.’ 18 This [very] day the ladies of Persia and Media who have heard of the queen’s refusal will speak [in the same way] to all the king’s officials, and there will be plenty of contempt and anger. 19 If it pleases the king, let a royal command be issued by him and let it be written in the laws of the Persians and Medes so that it cannot be repealed or modified, that Vashti is [f]no longer to come before King Ahasuerus; and let the king give her royal position to another who is better and more worthy than she. 20 So when the king’s great decree is proclaimed throughout his [extensive] kingdom, all women will give honor to their husbands, from the great to the insignificant.”

21 This statement (advice) pleased the king and the officials, and the king did what Memucan proposed. 22 So he sent letters to all the royal provinces, to each province in its own script and to each people in their own language, saying that every man should be the master and rule in his own home and that [g]he should speak [in the household] in the language of his own people.

Notas al pie

  1. Esther 1:1 Ahasuerus’ Greek name was Xerxes (I), his Persian name was Khshayarshan. Xerxes I (also known as Xerxes the Great the son of Darius the Great), ruled 486-465 b.c. He is the Xerxes who invaded Greece, was stopped temporarily at Thermopylae, defeated at the naval battle at Salamis, and nearly annihilated at Plataea (479 b.c.). The French excavations at Susa in 1880-1890 uncovered the great palace of Xerxes, where Esther would have lived. The building covered two and one-half acres. The finds at Susa from this period were so astonishing that the Louvre in Paris devoted two large rooms to the exhibition of the treasures. Xerxes’ tomb (looted in antiquity) is believed to be among the rock-cut tombs located at Naqsh-e Rajab, an archeological site in Iran about ten miles northwest of the site of ancient Persepolis.
  2. Esther 1:2 Susa was located about a hundred and fifty miles east of the Tigris River. The site, now modern day Shush, Iran, is considered to be one of the world’s oldest continuously inhabited cities. An ancient tomb presumed to be that of Daniel is located in the area.
  3. Esther 1:6 An Egyptian rock of feldspar crystals embedded in a dark red or purple groundmass used as flooring.
  4. Esther 1:10 Eunuchs were the men who were placed in charge of the king’s harem, and for that reason had been castrated.
  5. Esther 1:11 According to Jewish tradition Ahasuerus’ guests demanded that Vashti be naked, except for her royal turban to confirm that she was the queen and not just a servant-girl. She pleaded with Ahasuerus using several arguments, one of which was that if the guests found her beautiful, they would want to ravish her and kill him; and if not, her lack of beauty would disgrace him.
  6. Esther 1:19 The intent may have been simply to confine Vashti to the king’s harem and put another wife on the throne. The ancient rabbis said, however, that when the king accepted the advice, he ordered that Vashti be beheaded and her head brought to him on a platter.
  7. Esther 1:22 In recognition of the position of her husband a foreign-born wife was to speak his language.