1以色列的众子带着家眷跟雅各[a]一起去了埃及，以下是他们的名字： 2 吕便、西缅、利未、犹大、 3 以萨迦、西布伦、便雅悯、 4 但、拿弗他利、迦得、亚设。 5 雅各的子孙总共有七十人。那时，约瑟已经住在埃及。 6 后来，约瑟和他的弟兄以及同辈的人都相继去世。 7 以色列人生养众多，人口大增，很快就遍布埃及，成为一个强大的民族。 8 那时，埃及有一位不认识约瑟的新王登基， 9 对他的百姓说：“你们看，以色列人比我们多，又比我们强。 10 来吧！我们要设法阻止他们人口增长，否则一遇到战争，他们便会加入我们敌人的阵营来攻打我们，然后一走了之。”
11 于是，埃及人派监工强迫以色列人服劳役，在比东和兰塞两地为法老兴建储货城。 12 以色列人越受奴役，人口增长得越快，散居的范围也越广，令埃及人感到恐惧。 13 于是，埃及人更残酷地奴役他们， 14 强迫他们和泥造砖，并做田间一切的苦工，使他们痛苦不堪。 15 埃及王又命令两个希伯来的接生婆施弗拉和普阿： 16 “你们在替希伯来妇女接生的时候，如果看到生下的是男婴，就把他杀掉；如果是女婴，就让她活下来。” 17 但这两个接生婆敬畏上帝，没有执行王的命令，而是保留了男婴的性命。 18 埃及王召见那两个接生婆，质问她们：“你们为什么这样做？为什么让男婴活着？” 19 她们回答说：“因为希伯来妇女跟埃及妇女不同。她们身体强健，我们还没有赶到，婴儿就生下来了。” 20-21 因此，以色列人口继续增加，更加繁盛。因为这两个接生婆敬畏上帝，上帝便赐福给她们，使她们生儿育女。 22 后来，法老命令全埃及的人把以色列人生的所有男婴都抛进尼罗河里，只让女婴活着。
Israel Multiplies in Egypt
1Now these are the names of the sons of Israel who came to Egypt with Jacob; each came with his household: 2 Reuben, Simeon, Levi, and Judah; 3 Issachar, Zebulun, and Benjamin; 4 Dan and Naphtali, Gad, and Asher. 5 All the descendants of Jacob were seventy people; Joseph was [already] in Egypt. 6 Then Joseph died, and all his brothers and all that generation, 7 but the [a]Israelites were prolific and increased greatly; [b]they multiplied and became extremely strong, so that the land was filled with them.
8 [c]Now a new [d]king arose over Egypt, who did not know Joseph [nor the history of his accomplishments]. 9 He said to his people, “Behold, the [e]people of the sons of Israel are too many and too mighty for us [they greatly outnumber us]. 10 Come, let us deal shrewdly with them, so that they will not multiply and in the event of war, join our enemies, and fight against us and escape from the land.” 11 So they set taskmasters over them to oppress them with hard labor. And the sons of Israel built Pithom and Raamses as storage cities for Pharaoh. 12 But the more the Egyptians oppressed them, the more they multiplied and expanded, so that the Egyptians dreaded and were exasperated by the Israelites. 13 And the Egyptians made the Israelites serve rigorously [forcing them into severe slavery]. 14 They made their lives bitter with hard labor in mortar, brick, and all kinds of field work. All their labor was harsh and severe.
15 Then the king of Egypt said to the Hebrew midwives, one of whom was named Shiphrah (beauty) and the other named Puah (splendor), 16 “When you act as midwives to the Hebrew women and see them on the birthstool, if it is a son, you shall kill him; but if it is a daughter, she shall live.” 17 But the midwives feared God [with profound reverence] and did not do as the king of Egypt commanded, but they let the boy babies live. 18 So the king of Egypt called for the midwives and said to them, “Why have you done this thing, and allowed the boy babies to live?” 19 The midwives answered Pharaoh, “Because the Hebrew women are not like the Egyptian women; they are vigorous and give birth quickly and their babies are born before the midwife can get to them.” 20 So God was good to the midwives, and the people [of Israel] multiplied and became very strong. 21 And because the midwives feared God [with profound reverence], [f]He established families and households for them. 22 Then [g]Pharaoh commanded all his people, saying, “Every son who is born [to the Hebrews] must be thrown into the Nile, but every daughter you shall keep alive.”
Notas al pie
- Exodus 1:7 In general, sons (children, descendants) of Israel or Israel or Israelites refers to all the people (males and females) of the various tribes descended from the twelve sons (Gen 35:23-26) of Jacob (later renamed Israel by God). In verses concerning things such as warfare or circumcision sons of Israel or Israel or Israelites usually refers only to the males. Tribes of ancient people were identified by the name of their founding ancestor. Therefore, this same general rule applies when referring to individual tribal groups, e.g. sons of Reuben, Reuben, Reubenites and so throughout.
- Exodus 1:7 Over two hundred years have passed since the death of Joseph.
- Exodus 1:8 The political attitude toward the Israelites living in Egypt changed from friendly and welcoming to suspicious and hostile, and Israel’s struggle for existence led to one of the most dramatic and memorable interventions that God would make in human history.
- Exodus 1:8 The identity of this pharaoh is uncertain. Some scholars think he was Ahmose I (1570-1546 b.c.), founder of the 18th dynasty of Egypt’s New Kingdom or Ahmose’s successor, Amenhotep I (1546-1525 b.c.). Others believe that this Pharaoh was one of the first of the Hyksos rulers; the Hyksos were foreign invaders.
- Exodus 1:9 This is the first record of the descendants of Israel (Jacob) being regarded as a separate nation (also see Gen 34:7 and note).
- Exodus 1:21 Lit made them houses.
- Exodus 1:22 If the early date of the exodus (1446 b.c.) is acknowledged, as most conservative scholars hold, then this pharaoh is likely Thutmose I (1525-1512 b.c.).