Bibelen på hverdagsdansk

Anden Kongebog 17

Eksilet—Guds dom over Israel

1I kong Ahaz af Judas 12. regeringsår blev Hosea, Elas søn, konge i Israel. Han regerede i Samaria i ni år. Han gjorde, hvad der var ondt i Herrens øjne, men ikke så slemt som hans forgængere på Israels trone.

Kong Shalmanesar af Assyrien angreb og besejrede kong Hosea, så Israel måtte betale skat til den assyriske konge. Men Hosea gjorde oprør imod assyrerkongen, idet han henvendte sig til kong So af Egypten og bad ham om hjælp i sit forsøg på at befri Israel fra det assyriske tyranni. Samtidig nægtede Hosea at betale skat til Assyrien. Da skatten udeblev, sendte assyrerkongen bud efter Israels konge og lod ham kaste i fængsel.

Assyrerkongen drog derefter med sin hær til Israel og belejrede hovedstaden Samaria i tre år. I kong Hoseas niende regeringsår måtte byen endelig overgive sig. Israels folk blev deporteret til Assyrien og anbragt i kolonier i byen Halach, i Gozan ved Haborfloden, og i en række mediske byer.

Nordrigets indbyggere blev sendt i eksil, fordi de dyrkede afguderne og derved syndede imod Herren, deres Gud, som havde ført dem ud af fangenskabet i Egypten. Anført af Israels konger begyndte de at følge de samme ugudelige skikke, som blev praktiseret af de folkeslag, som Herren havde jaget ud af landet for at give plads til sit eget folk. Israels folk trodsede deres Gud ved at gøre mange ting, som var forkert i Herrens øjne. De indrettede offerhøje rundt omkring i landet i både små og store byer, 10 og de opstillede frugtbarhedssymboler og afgudsbilleder på alle offerhøjene og under de store træer. 11 De brændte afgudsofre på højene, sådan som folkene, der boede i landet før dem, havde gjort. Alle disse onde handlinger skete i oprør mod Herren, 12 for folket tilbad disse afguder på trods af, at Herren klart havde sagt, at det måtte de ikke gøre.

13 Gang på gang havde Herren sendt sine profeter for at advare Israel og Juda. Budskabet var altid det samme: „Hold op med jeres afgudsdyrkelse og adlyd i stedet de love og anvisninger, som jeg gav jeres forfædre ved mine profeters medvirken.” 14 Men de ville ikke høre efter. De var lige så oprørske som deres forfædre, der ikke havde tillid til, at Herren, deres Gud, ville sørge for dem. 15 De forkastede hans love, den pagt han havde oprettet med deres forfædre og stentavlerne med de ti bud, som han havde givet dem. De tilbad indholdsløse afguder og endte selv i tomhed. De efterlignede de folkeslag, som Herren havde sagt, de ikke måtte efterligne. 16 De lod hånt om Herrens, deres Guds, bud ved at tilbede to gudebilleder i form af guldkalve. De opstillede søjler for Ashera, og de tilbad Baʼal, foruden solen, månen og stjernerne. 17 Ja, de ofrede tilmed deres egne børn som brændofre. De opsøgte okkulte medier og gjorde brug af trolddom. De solgte deres sjæl til at gøre, hvad der var ondt i Herrens øjne. På den måde gjorde de oprør imod Herren, 18 og han blev meget vred på Israel og sendte dem langt væk, indtil der kun var en rest tilbage i landet, nemlig Judas stamme.

19 Men også Juda nægtede at adlyde Herrens, deres Guds, bud. De fremturede i samme synd og ondskab, som Israel var begyndt på. 20 Derfor forkastede Herren alle Jakobs efterkommere. Han straffede dem ved at udlevere dem til deres fjender, indtil alle var ført i landflygtighed.

21 Dengang Herren rev Israels rige ud af Davidslægtens hånd, valgte de Jeroboam, Nebats søn, til konge. Det var ham, der lokkede folket til synd og indførte afgudsdyrkelsen. 22 Og Israels folk fortsatte derefter ad den vej, Jeroboam havde ledt dem ind på, 23 indtil det kom til det punkt, hvor Herren måtte forvise dem fra deres land, helt i overensstemmelse med profeternes advarsler. Det er baggrunden for Israels landflygtighed i Assyrien i dag.

Nybyggerne i Israel

24 Assyriens konge sørgede for at forflytte store menneskemængder fra byerne Babylon, Kuta, Avva, Hamat og Sefarvajim til Samarias byer, så de kunne befolke landet i stedet for israelitterne. Således overtog assyrerne Samaria og de andre byer i Israel og bosatte sig der. 25 Men fordi nybyggerne ikke fra begyndelsen tilbad Herren, sendte Herren løver iblandt dem, så mange af dem blev dræbt.

26 Da skyndte de sig at sende følgende budskab til den assyriske konge: „Vi nybyggere her i Israel kender ikke landets Gud, og nu har han sendt løver iblandt os, som dræber os, fordi vi ikke tilbeder ham.”

27 Assyrerkongen gav derefter ordre til, at en af de bortførte præster skulle vende tilbage til Israel og lære nybyggerne at dyrke Israels Gud. 28 Da rejste en præst, som oprindelig var kommet fra Samaria, tilbage til Israel og bosatte sig i Betel med det formål at forklare, hvordan man tilbeder Herren.

29 Men nybyggerne opgav ikke af den grund deres afgudsdyrkelse. Hver koloni lavede billeder af deres egne guder og opstillede dem på de offersteder, som allerede fandtes i landet. 30 Folk fra Babylon dyrkede deres gud Sukkot-Benot, folk fra Kuta dyrkede Nergal, folk fra Hamat dyrkede Ashima, 31 guderne Nibhaz og Tartak blev dyrket af avvijitterne, og folk fra Sefarvajim brændte endog deres børn som et udtryk for deres ærefrygt for guderne Adrammelek og Anammelek.

32 Samtidig ofrede de til Herren, Israels Gud. De udnævnte deres egne præster, som skulle ofre til Herren ved de offersteder, der var indrettet på bakketoppene. 33 Men de holdt fast ved deres nationale og religiøse skikke, som de havde taget med sig hjemmefra. 34 Sådan er det den dag i dag. De tilbeder ikke Herren af hjertet eller adlyder de love, han gav til Jakobs efterkommere, den Jakob hvis navn blev ændret til Israel. 35-36 For det var med Jakobs efterkommere Herren oprettede sin pagt, da han befalede dem aldrig at tilbede eller ofre til nogen afguder. De måtte kun tilbede Herren, der havde ført dem ud af Egypten med vældig kraft og store mirakler. 37 Jakobs efterkommere skulle adlyde alle Guds love og aldrig tilbede fremmede guder. 38 Gud havde sagt: „Glem aldrig den pagt, jeg her har oprettet med jer, så I dyrker andre guder. 39 Tilbed Herren alene. Han alene kan frelse jer fra jeres fjender.”

40 Men Israel ville ikke høre efter. De blev ved med at ofre til afguderne. 41 Nybyggerne fra Babylon ofrede til Israels Gud samtidig med, at de ofrede til deres egne guder. Og sådan er det fortsat helt frem til i dag.

New International Version

2 Kings 17

Hoshea Last King of Israel

1In the twelfth year of Ahaz king of Judah, Hoshea son of Elah became king of Israel in Samaria, and he reigned nine years. He did evil in the eyes of the Lord, but not like the kings of Israel who preceded him.

Shalmaneser king of Assyria came up to attack Hoshea, who had been Shalmaneser’s vassal and had paid him tribute. But the king of Assyria discovered that Hoshea was a traitor, for he had sent envoys to So[a] king of Egypt, and he no longer paid tribute to the king of Assyria, as he had done year by year. Therefore Shalmaneser seized him and put him in prison. The king of Assyria invaded the entire land, marched against Samaria and laid siege to it for three years. In the ninth year of Hoshea, the king of Assyria captured Samaria and deported the Israelites to Assyria. He settled them in Halah, in Gozan on the Habor River and in the towns of the Medes.

Israel Exiled Because of Sin

All this took place because the Israelites had sinned against the Lord their God, who had brought them up out of Egypt from under the power of Pharaoh king of Egypt. They worshiped other gods and followed the practices of the nations the Lord had driven out before them, as well as the practices that the kings of Israel had introduced. The Israelites secretly did things against the Lord their God that were not right. From watchtower to fortified city they built themselves high places in all their towns. 10 They set up sacred stones and Asherah poles on every high hill and under every spreading tree. 11 At every high place they burned incense, as the nations whom the Lord had driven out before them had done. They did wicked things that aroused the Lord’s anger. 12 They worshiped idols, though the Lord had said, “You shall not do this.”[b] 13 The Lord warned Israel and Judah through all his prophets and seers: “Turn from your evil ways. Observe my commands and decrees, in accordance with the entire Law that I commanded your ancestors to obey and that I delivered to you through my servants the prophets.”

14 But they would not listen and were as stiff-necked as their ancestors, who did not trust in the Lord their God. 15 They rejected his decrees and the covenant he had made with their ancestors and the statutes he had warned them to keep. They followed worthless idols and themselves became worthless. They imitated the nations around them although the Lord had ordered them, “Do not do as they do.”

16 They forsook all the commands of the Lord their God and made for themselves two idols cast in the shape of calves, and an Asherah pole. They bowed down to all the starry hosts, and they worshiped Baal. 17 They sacrificed their sons and daughters in the fire. They practiced divination and sought omens and sold themselves to do evil in the eyes of the Lord, arousing his anger.

18 So the Lord was very angry with Israel and removed them from his presence. Only the tribe of Judah was left, 19 and even Judah did not keep the commands of the Lord their God. They followed the practices Israel had introduced. 20 Therefore the Lord rejected all the people of Israel; he afflicted them and gave them into the hands of plunderers, until he thrust them from his presence.

21 When he tore Israel away from the house of David, they made Jeroboam son of Nebat their king. Jeroboam enticed Israel away from following the Lord and caused them to commit a great sin. 22 The Israelites persisted in all the sins of Jeroboam and did not turn away from them 23 until the Lord removed them from his presence, as he had warned through all his servants the prophets. So the people of Israel were taken from their homeland into exile in Assyria, and they are still there.

Samaria Resettled

24 The king of Assyria brought people from Babylon, Kuthah, Avva, Hamath and Sepharvaim and settled them in the towns of Samaria to replace the Israelites. They took over Samaria and lived in its towns. 25 When they first lived there, they did not worship the Lord; so he sent lions among them and they killed some of the people. 26 It was reported to the king of Assyria: “The people you deported and resettled in the towns of Samaria do not know what the god of that country requires. He has sent lions among them, which are killing them off, because the people do not know what he requires.”

27 Then the king of Assyria gave this order: “Have one of the priests you took captive from Samaria go back to live there and teach the people what the god of the land requires.” 28 So one of the priests who had been exiled from Samaria came to live in Bethel and taught them how to worship the Lord.

29 Nevertheless, each national group made its own gods in the several towns where they settled, and set them up in the shrines the people of Samaria had made at the high places. 30 The people from Babylon made Sukkoth Benoth, those from Kuthah made Nergal, and those from Hamath made Ashima; 31 the Avvites made Nibhaz and Tartak, and the Sepharvites burned their children in the fire as sacrifices to Adrammelek and Anammelek, the gods of Sepharvaim. 32 They worshiped the Lord, but they also appointed all sorts of their own people to officiate for them as priests in the shrines at the high places. 33 They worshiped the Lord, but they also served their own gods in accordance with the customs of the nations from which they had been brought.

34 To this day they persist in their former practices. They neither worship the Lord nor adhere to the decrees and regulations, the laws and commands that the Lord gave the descendants of Jacob, whom he named Israel. 35 When the Lord made a covenant with the Israelites, he commanded them: “Do not worship any other gods or bow down to them, serve them or sacrifice to them. 36 But the Lord, who brought you up out of Egypt with mighty power and outstretched arm, is the one you must worship. To him you shall bow down and to him offer sacrifices. 37 You must always be careful to keep the decrees and regulations, the laws and commands he wrote for you. Do not worship other gods. 38 Do not forget the covenant I have made with you, and do not worship other gods. 39 Rather, worship the Lord your God; it is he who will deliver you from the hand of all your enemies.”

40 They would not listen, however, but persisted in their former practices. 41 Even while these people were worshiping the Lord, they were serving their idols. To this day their children and grandchildren continue to do as their ancestors did.

Notas al pie

  1. 2 Kings 17:4 So is probably an abbreviation for Osorkon.
  2. 2 Kings 17:12 Exodus 20:4,5