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3 Mosebog 14

Regler for renselse efter en smitsom sygdom

11-2 Herren gav derefter Moses følgende anvisninger for, hvordan urene personer kan blive erklæret rene igen:

„Præsten skal gå uden for lejren for at undersøge dem, som er erklæret urene. Hvis præsten kan se, at sygdommen er forsvundet, skal han bede om to levende fugle af den slags, der må spises, noget cedertræ, en purpurrød snor og isopgrene. Tingene skal bruges i renselsesceremonien for dem, som er blevet helbredt. Præsten skal beordre den ene af fuglene slagtet over et lerkar med frisk kildevand. Den anden fugl, som stadig er i live, skal sammen med cedertræet, den purpurrøde snor og isopgrenen dyppes i det opsamlede blod. Så skal præsten syv gange stænke blod over dem, som er blevet helbredt, og erklære dem for raske, idet han slipper den levende fugl løs.

Derefter skal de, som er blevet helbredt, vaske deres tøj, barbere håret af og bade, hvorefter de kan vende tilbage til lejren, men de skal holde sig uden for deres families telt i syv dage. På den syvende dag skal de igen barbere håret af og også øjenbrynene, samt skægget for mændenes vedkommende, og de skal bade og vaske deres tøj igen, før de endelig kan erklæres for fuldkommen helbredt for deres sygdom.

10 Næste dag, altså på den ottende dag, skal de hver tage to vædderlam uden fysiske skavanker, et etårs gimmerlam, også uden fysiske skavanker, seks liter fint mel rørt op i olivenolie og en tredjedel liter olivenolie. 11 Så skal præsten, som har foretaget undersøgelsen, bringe de helbredte og deres offergaver frem for Herren ved indgangen til åbenbaringsteltet. 12 Han skal tage det ene af vædderlammene, det, der skal bruges til skyldoffer, sammen med olivenolien og svinge det foran alteret. 13 Så skal han slagte lammet på det indviede sted, hvor syndoffer- og brændofferdyrene slagtes, og kødet fra dette skyldoffer tilfalder præsten, så han kan spise det. Det er jo indviet til Herren. 14 Derefter skal han tage noget af blodet fra skyldofferet og smøre det på de helbredtes højre øreflip, højre tommelfinger og højre storetå. 15 Så skal han hælde noget af olivenolien i sin venstre hånd, 16 dyppe sin højre finger i det og stænke det syv gange foran Herren, 17 og dernæst smøre noget af olien på de helbredtes højre øreflip, tommelfinger og storetå oven på skyldofferdyrets blod. 18 Når det er gjort, skal han hælde resten af olien i sin hånd over deres hoved. På den måde skal han skaffe dem soning hos Herren.

19 Derefter skal præsten ofre gimmerlammet som syndoffer og udføre forsoningsritualet på de helbredtes vegne. Til sidst skal han bringe det andet vædderlam som brændoffer 20 og ofre det på alteret sammen med afgrødeofferet, så han skaffer dem soning. Da kan de endelig erklæres for rene.

21 Hvis de pågældende imidlertid er fattige og ikke har råd til tre lam, kan de nøjes med at bringe et enkelt vædderlam som skyldoffer. Lammet skal svinges foran Herrens alter som soning for dem. Som afgrødeoffer kan de nøjes med at ofre tre liter fint mel rørt op i olivenolie samt en tredjedel liter olivenolie.

22 De skal så i stedet bringe to turtelduer eller to unge duer, afhængigt af hvad de har råd til. Den ene due skal bruges som syndoffer og den anden som brændoffer. 23 På den ottende dag, efter at de er erklæret rene, skal de bringe dyrene til præsten ved indgangen til åbenbaringsteltet. 24 Han skal så tage lammet og svinge det foran Herrens alter sammen med olivenolien, 25 hvorpå han skal slagte lammet og bringe det som skyldoffer og smøre noget af blodet på de helbredtes højre øreflip, tommelfinger og storetå.

26 Præsten skal nu hælde olivenolie i sin venstre hånd, 27 dyppe sin højre finger i det og stænke det syv gange på Herrens alter. 28 Derefter skal han smøre noget af den tiloversblevne olivenolie på deres højre øreflip, tommelfinger og storetå oven på skyldofferdyrets blod. 29 Den resterende olie i hans hånd skal han hælde ud over hovedet på dem, på hvis vegne renselsesceremonien udføres, og derved skaffe soning for dem hos Herren.

30 Derpå skal han ofre de to turtelduer eller de to unge duer, hvad nu de helbredte kom med. 31 Den ene af duerne skal bruges til syndoffer og den anden til brændoffer sammen med afgrødeofferet. På den måde skal præsten skaffe dem soning hos Herren.”

32 Disse regler gælder for dem, som ikke er i stand til at bringe de ofre, der normalt kræves i forbindelse med renselsesceremonien.

33 Derefter sagde Herren til Moses og Aron: 34 „Når I ankommer til Kanaʼans land, som jeg har givet jer lovning på, kan det ske, at der kommer mug eller svamp i et hus. 35 I så fald skal husets ejer henvende sig til præsten og ikke lægge skjul på sin mistanke om, at der er noget smitsomt i hans hus. 36 Så skal præsten beordre huset ryddet, før han går i gang med at undersøge det, så ikke hele indboet bliver urent. 37 Hvis han i husets vægge opdager grønlige eller rødlige pletter, der går dybere end selve overfladen, 38 skal han afspærre huset i syv dage 39 og derefter komme og inspicere det igen. Viser det sig nu, at pletterne på væggen har bredt sig, 40 skal præsten beordre den del af væggen fjernet og materialerne anbragt på en dertil indrettet losseplads uden for byen. 41 Derefter skal han sørge for, at husets indervægge bliver skrabet grundigt, og at al det afskrabede materiale bliver smidt på lossepladsen uden for byen. 42 Så skal der sættes nye sten ind i stedet for de gamle, og væggen skal pudses med ny mørtel.

43 Hvis pletterne nu viser sig igen, 44 skal præsten komme tilbage og undersøge huset på ny. Hvis han ser, at pletterne har bredt sig, er der tale om noget smitsomt, og huset er urent. 45 Derfor skal han beordre huset revet ned, og han skal sørge for, at både sten, tømmer og puds bliver fjernet og smidt på lossepladsen.

46 Enhver, der overtræder forbudet om at gå ind i det afspærrede hus, skal regnes for uren indtil aften, 47 og enhver, som sover eller spiser i huset, skal vaske sit tøj bagefter.

48 Men hvis præsten ved den næste undersøgelse kan se, at der ikke er nye pletter, skal han foretage den ceremonielle renselse, for huset er nu uden for smittefare. 49 Renselsen foregår ved, at han tager to fugle, et stykke cedertræ, en purpurrød snor og en isopgren. 50 Den ene fugl skal han slagte over et lerkar med frisk kildevand 51-52 og derefter dyppe cedertræet, isopgrenen, den purpurrøde snor og den levende fugl i det opsamlede blod. Så skal han bestænke huset syv gange, for at huset kan blive renset, 53 og lade den levende fugl slippe fri uden for byen. Det er den fremgangsmåde, som må følges, når et hus er urent, og der skal skaffes soning for det, så det kan blive renset.”

54 Det var reglerne for, hvordan man kan fastslå angreb af smitsomme sygdomme 55 på tøj og i huse 56 og i forbindelse med pletter på huden, udslæt og sår. 57 Ved at følge de her regler, kan I afgøre, om der er tale om angreb af en smitsom sygdom eller ej. Derfor blev denne lov givet.

New International Version

Leviticus 14

Cleansing From Defiling Skin Diseases

1The Lord said to Moses, “These are the regulations for any diseased person at the time of their ceremonial cleansing, when they are brought to the priest: The priest is to go outside the camp and examine them. If they have been healed of their defiling skin disease,[a] the priest shall order that two live clean birds and some cedar wood, scarlet yarn and hyssop be brought for the person to be cleansed. Then the priest shall order that one of the birds be killed over fresh water in a clay pot. He is then to take the live bird and dip it, together with the cedar wood, the scarlet yarn and the hyssop, into the blood of the bird that was killed over the fresh water. Seven times he shall sprinkle the one to be cleansed of the defiling disease, and then pronounce them clean. After that, he is to release the live bird in the open fields.

“The person to be cleansed must wash their clothes, shave off all their hair and bathe with water; then they will be ceremonially clean. After this they may come into the camp, but they must stay outside their tent for seven days. On the seventh day they must shave off all their hair; they must shave their head, their beard, their eyebrows and the rest of their hair. They must wash their clothes and bathe themselves with water, and they will be clean.

10 “On the eighth day they must bring two male lambs and one ewe lamb a year old, each without defect, along with three-tenths of an ephah[b] of the finest flour mixed with olive oil for a grain offering, and one log[c] of oil. 11 The priest who pronounces them clean shall present both the one to be cleansed and their offerings before the Lord at the entrance to the tent of meeting.

12 “Then the priest is to take one of the male lambs and offer it as a guilt offering, along with the log of oil; he shall wave them before the Lord as a wave offering. 13 He is to slaughter the lamb in the sanctuary area where the sin offering[d] and the burnt offering are slaughtered. Like the sin offering, the guilt offering belongs to the priest; it is most holy. 14 The priest is to take some of the blood of the guilt offering and put it on the lobe of the right ear of the one to be cleansed, on the thumb of their right hand and on the big toe of their right foot. 15 The priest shall then take some of the log of oil, pour it in the palm of his own left hand, 16 dip his right forefinger into the oil in his palm, and with his finger sprinkle some of it before the Lord seven times. 17 The priest is to put some of the oil remaining in his palm on the lobe of the right ear of the one to be cleansed, on the thumb of their right hand and on the big toe of their right foot, on top of the blood of the guilt offering. 18 The rest of the oil in his palm the priest shall put on the head of the one to be cleansed and make atonement for them before the Lord.

19 “Then the priest is to sacrifice the sin offering and make atonement for the one to be cleansed from their uncleanness. After that, the priest shall slaughter the burnt offering 20 and offer it on the altar, together with the grain offering, and make atonement for them, and they will be clean.

21 “If, however, they are poor and cannot afford these, they must take one male lamb as a guilt offering to be waved to make atonement for them, together with a tenth of an ephah[e] of the finest flour mixed with olive oil for a grain offering, a log of oil, 22 and two doves or two young pigeons, such as they can afford, one for a sin offering and the other for a burnt offering.

23 “On the eighth day they must bring them for their cleansing to the priest at the entrance to the tent of meeting, before the Lord. 24 The priest is to take the lamb for the guilt offering, together with the log of oil, and wave them before the Lord as a wave offering. 25 He shall slaughter the lamb for the guilt offering and take some of its blood and put it on the lobe of the right ear of the one to be cleansed, on the thumb of their right hand and on the big toe of their right foot. 26 The priest is to pour some of the oil into the palm of his own left hand, 27 and with his right forefinger sprinkle some of the oil from his palm seven times before the Lord. 28 Some of the oil in his palm he is to put on the same places he put the blood of the guilt offering—on the lobe of the right ear of the one to be cleansed, on the thumb of their right hand and on the big toe of their right foot. 29 The rest of the oil in his palm the priest shall put on the head of the one to be cleansed, to make atonement for them before the Lord. 30 Then he shall sacrifice the doves or the young pigeons, such as the person can afford, 31 one as a sin offering and the other as a burnt offering, together with the grain offering. In this way the priest will make atonement before the Lord on behalf of the one to be cleansed.”

32 These are the regulations for anyone who has a defiling skin disease and who cannot afford the regular offerings for their cleansing.

Cleansing From Defiling Molds

33 The Lord said to Moses and Aaron, 34 “When you enter the land of Canaan, which I am giving you as your possession, and I put a spreading mold in a house in that land, 35 the owner of the house must go and tell the priest, ‘I have seen something that looks like a defiling mold in my house.’ 36 The priest is to order the house to be emptied before he goes in to examine the mold, so that nothing in the house will be pronounced unclean. After this the priest is to go in and inspect the house. 37 He is to examine the mold on the walls, and if it has greenish or reddish depressions that appear to be deeper than the surface of the wall, 38 the priest shall go out the doorway of the house and close it up for seven days. 39 On the seventh day the priest shall return to inspect the house. If the mold has spread on the walls, 40 he is to order that the contaminated stones be torn out and thrown into an unclean place outside the town. 41 He must have all the inside walls of the house scraped and the material that is scraped off dumped into an unclean place outside the town. 42 Then they are to take other stones to replace these and take new clay and plaster the house.

43 “If the defiling mold reappears in the house after the stones have been torn out and the house scraped and plastered, 44 the priest is to go and examine it and, if the mold has spread in the house, it is a persistent defiling mold; the house is unclean. 45 It must be torn down—its stones, timbers and all the plaster—and taken out of the town to an unclean place.

46 “Anyone who goes into the house while it is closed up will be unclean till evening. 47 Anyone who sleeps or eats in the house must wash their clothes.

48 “But if the priest comes to examine it and the mold has not spread after the house has been plastered, he shall pronounce the house clean, because the defiling mold is gone. 49 To purify the house he is to take two birds and some cedar wood, scarlet yarn and hyssop. 50 He shall kill one of the birds over fresh water in a clay pot. 51 Then he is to take the cedar wood, the hyssop, the scarlet yarn and the live bird, dip them into the blood of the dead bird and the fresh water, and sprinkle the house seven times. 52 He shall purify the house with the bird’s blood, the fresh water, the live bird, the cedar wood, the hyssop and the scarlet yarn. 53 Then he is to release the live bird in the open fields outside the town. In this way he will make atonement for the house, and it will be clean.”

54 These are the regulations for any defiling skin disease, for a sore, 55 for defiling molds in fabric or in a house, 56 and for a swelling, a rash or a shiny spot, 57 to determine when something is clean or unclean.

These are the regulations for defiling skin diseases and defiling molds.

Notas al pie

  1. Leviticus 14:3 The Hebrew word for defiling skin disease, traditionally translated “leprosy,” was used for various diseases affecting the skin; also in verses 7, 32, 54 and 57.
  2. Leviticus 14:10 That is, probably about 11 pounds or about 5 kilograms
  3. Leviticus 14:10 That is, about 1/3 quart or about 0.3 liter; also in verses 12, 15, 21 and 24
  4. Leviticus 14:13 Or purification offering; also in verses 19, 22 and 31
  5. Leviticus 14:21 That is, probably about 3 1/2 pounds or about 1.6 kilograms