Bibelen på hverdagsdansk

3 Mosebog 14

Regler for renselse efter en smitsom sygdom

11-2 Herren gav derefter Moses følgende anvisninger for, hvordan urene personer kan blive erklæret rene igen:

„Præsten skal gå uden for lejren for at undersøge dem, som er erklæret urene. Hvis præsten kan se, at sygdommen er forsvundet, skal han bede om to levende fugle af den slags, der må spises, noget cedertræ, en purpurrød snor og isopgrene. Tingene skal bruges i renselsesceremonien for dem, som er blevet helbredt. Præsten skal beordre den ene af fuglene slagtet over et lerkar med frisk kildevand. Den anden fugl, som stadig er i live, skal sammen med cedertræet, den purpurrøde snor og isopgrenen dyppes i det opsamlede blod. Så skal præsten syv gange stænke blod over dem, som er blevet helbredt, og erklære dem for raske, idet han slipper den levende fugl løs.

Derefter skal de, som er blevet helbredt, vaske deres tøj, barbere håret af og bade, hvorefter de kan vende tilbage til lejren, men de skal holde sig uden for deres families telt i syv dage. På den syvende dag skal de igen barbere håret af og også øjenbrynene, samt skægget for mændenes vedkommende, og de skal bade og vaske deres tøj igen, før de endelig kan erklæres for fuldkommen helbredt for deres sygdom.

10 Næste dag, altså på den ottende dag, skal de hver tage to vædderlam uden fysiske skavanker, et etårs gimmerlam, også uden fysiske skavanker, seks liter fint mel rørt op i olivenolie og en tredjedel liter olivenolie. 11 Så skal præsten, som har foretaget undersøgelsen, bringe de helbredte og deres offergaver frem for Herren ved indgangen til åbenbaringsteltet. 12 Han skal tage det ene af vædderlammene, det, der skal bruges til skyldoffer, sammen med olivenolien og svinge det foran alteret. 13 Så skal han slagte lammet på det indviede sted, hvor syndoffer- og brændofferdyrene slagtes, og kødet fra dette skyldoffer tilfalder præsten, så han kan spise det. Det er jo indviet til Herren. 14 Derefter skal han tage noget af blodet fra skyldofferet og smøre det på de helbredtes højre øreflip, højre tommelfinger og højre storetå. 15 Så skal han hælde noget af olivenolien i sin venstre hånd, 16 dyppe sin højre finger i det og stænke det syv gange foran Herren, 17 og dernæst smøre noget af olien på de helbredtes højre øreflip, tommelfinger og storetå oven på skyldofferdyrets blod. 18 Når det er gjort, skal han hælde resten af olien i sin hånd over deres hoved. På den måde skal han skaffe dem soning hos Herren.

19 Derefter skal præsten ofre gimmerlammet som syndoffer og udføre forsoningsritualet på de helbredtes vegne. Til sidst skal han bringe det andet vædderlam som brændoffer 20 og ofre det på alteret sammen med afgrødeofferet, så han skaffer dem soning. Da kan de endelig erklæres for rene.

21 Hvis de pågældende imidlertid er fattige og ikke har råd til tre lam, kan de nøjes med at bringe et enkelt vædderlam som skyldoffer. Lammet skal svinges foran Herrens alter som soning for dem. Som afgrødeoffer kan de nøjes med at ofre tre liter fint mel rørt op i olivenolie samt en tredjedel liter olivenolie.

22 De skal så i stedet bringe to turtelduer eller to unge duer, afhængigt af hvad de har råd til. Den ene due skal bruges som syndoffer og den anden som brændoffer. 23 På den ottende dag, efter at de er erklæret rene, skal de bringe dyrene til præsten ved indgangen til åbenbaringsteltet. 24 Han skal så tage lammet og svinge det foran Herrens alter sammen med olivenolien, 25 hvorpå han skal slagte lammet og bringe det som skyldoffer og smøre noget af blodet på de helbredtes højre øreflip, tommelfinger og storetå.

26 Præsten skal nu hælde olivenolie i sin venstre hånd, 27 dyppe sin højre finger i det og stænke det syv gange på Herrens alter. 28 Derefter skal han smøre noget af den tiloversblevne olivenolie på deres højre øreflip, tommelfinger og storetå oven på skyldofferdyrets blod. 29 Den resterende olie i hans hånd skal han hælde ud over hovedet på dem, på hvis vegne renselsesceremonien udføres, og derved skaffe soning for dem hos Herren.

30 Derpå skal han ofre de to turtelduer eller de to unge duer, hvad nu de helbredte kom med. 31 Den ene af duerne skal bruges til syndoffer og den anden til brændoffer sammen med afgrødeofferet. På den måde skal præsten skaffe dem soning hos Herren.”

32 Disse regler gælder for dem, som ikke er i stand til at bringe de ofre, der normalt kræves i forbindelse med renselsesceremonien.

33 Derefter sagde Herren til Moses og Aron: 34 „Når I ankommer til Kanaʼans land, som jeg har givet jer lovning på, kan det ske, at der kommer mug eller svamp i et hus. 35 I så fald skal husets ejer henvende sig til præsten og ikke lægge skjul på sin mistanke om, at der er noget smitsomt i hans hus. 36 Så skal præsten beordre huset ryddet, før han går i gang med at undersøge det, så ikke hele indboet bliver urent. 37 Hvis han i husets vægge opdager grønlige eller rødlige pletter, der går dybere end selve overfladen, 38 skal han afspærre huset i syv dage 39 og derefter komme og inspicere det igen. Viser det sig nu, at pletterne på væggen har bredt sig, 40 skal præsten beordre den del af væggen fjernet og materialerne anbragt på en dertil indrettet losseplads uden for byen. 41 Derefter skal han sørge for, at husets indervægge bliver skrabet grundigt, og at al det afskrabede materiale bliver smidt på lossepladsen uden for byen. 42 Så skal der sættes nye sten ind i stedet for de gamle, og væggen skal pudses med ny mørtel.

43 Hvis pletterne nu viser sig igen, 44 skal præsten komme tilbage og undersøge huset på ny. Hvis han ser, at pletterne har bredt sig, er der tale om noget smitsomt, og huset er urent. 45 Derfor skal han beordre huset revet ned, og han skal sørge for, at både sten, tømmer og puds bliver fjernet og smidt på lossepladsen.

46 Enhver, der overtræder forbudet om at gå ind i det afspærrede hus, skal regnes for uren indtil aften, 47 og enhver, som sover eller spiser i huset, skal vaske sit tøj bagefter.

48 Men hvis præsten ved den næste undersøgelse kan se, at der ikke er nye pletter, skal han foretage den ceremonielle renselse, for huset er nu uden for smittefare. 49 Renselsen foregår ved, at han tager to fugle, et stykke cedertræ, en purpurrød snor og en isopgren. 50 Den ene fugl skal han slagte over et lerkar med frisk kildevand 51-52 og derefter dyppe cedertræet, isopgrenen, den purpurrøde snor og den levende fugl i det opsamlede blod. Så skal han bestænke huset syv gange, for at huset kan blive renset, 53 og lade den levende fugl slippe fri uden for byen. Det er den fremgangsmåde, som må følges, når et hus er urent, og der skal skaffes soning for det, så det kan blive renset.”

54 Det var reglerne for, hvordan man kan fastslå angreb af smitsomme sygdomme 55 på tøj og i huse 56 og i forbindelse med pletter på huden, udslæt og sår. 57 Ved at følge de her regler, kan I afgøre, om der er tale om angreb af en smitsom sygdom eller ej. Derfor blev denne lov givet.

Amplified Bible

Leviticus 14

Law of Cleansing a Leper

1Then the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, “This shall be the law of the leper on the day of his [ceremonial] cleansing. He shall be brought to the priest [at a meeting place outside the camp]; the priest shall go out of the camp [to meet him]; and the priest shall examine him, and if the leper has been healed of the infection of leprosy, then the priest shall give orders to take two live clean birds and cedar wood and scarlet string and [a]hyssop for the one to be cleansed. Next the priest shall order that one of the birds be killed [as a sacrifice] in an earthenware container over [fresh] [b]running water. As for the live bird, he shall take it together with the cedar wood and the scarlet string and the hyssop, and shall dip them and the live bird in the blood of the bird sacrificed over the running water. He shall sprinkle [the blood] seven times on the one to be cleansed from the leprosy and shall pronounce him [ceremonially] clean. Then he shall let the live bird go free over the open field. The one to be cleansed shall wash his clothes, shave off all his hair, and bathe in water; and he shall be clean. After that he may come into the camp, but he shall stay outside of his tent for seven days. On the seventh day he shall shave off all his hair: he shall shave his head and his beard and his eyebrows, even all his hair [on his body]. Then he shall wash his clothes and bathe his body in water, and be clean.

10 “Now on the eighth day he shall take two male lambs without blemish, and a yearling ewe lamb without blemish, and three-tenths of an ephah of fine flour mixed with [olive] oil as a grain offering, and one log (about a pint) of oil; 11 and the priest who cleanses him shall present the man to be cleansed and his offerings before the Lord at the doorway of the Tent of Meeting. 12 Then the priest shall take one of the male lambs and offer it as a guilt offering, with the log of oil, and present them as a wave offering before the Lord. 13 He shall kill the male lamb in the place where they kill the sin offering and the burnt offering, in the sacred place [the courtyard of the tabernacle]; for the guilt offering, like the sin offering, belongs to the priest; it is most holy. 14 The priest shall take some of the blood of the guilt offering and put it on the lobe of the right ear of the one to be cleansed, and on the thumb of his right hand, and on the big toe of his right foot. 15 The priest shall also take some of the log of oil, and pour it into the palm of his own left hand; 16 and the priest shall dip his right finger in the oil that is in his left palm, and with his finger sprinkle some of the oil seven times before the Lord. 17 Of the rest of the oil which is in his palm, the priest shall put some on the lobe of the right ear of the one to be cleansed, and on the thumb of his right hand, and on the big toe of his right foot, on top of the blood of the guilt offering. 18 The remaining oil that is in the priest’s palm shall be put on the head of the one to be cleansed. The priest shall make atonement for him before the Lord. 19 Next the priest shall offer the sin offering and make atonement for the one to be cleansed from his uncleanness, and afterward kill the burnt offering. 20 The priest shall offer the burnt offering and the grain offering on the altar; and the priest shall make atonement for him, and he shall be clean.

21 “But if the cleansed leper is poor and his means are insufficient, then he is to take one lamb as a guilt offering to be waved to make atonement for him, and one tenth of an ephah of fine flour mixed with oil as a grain offering, and a log of oil, 22 and two turtledoves or two young pigeons, such as he can afford, one shall be a sin offering, the other a burnt offering. 23 He shall bring them on the eighth day for his [ceremonial] cleansing to the priest at the doorway of the Tent of Meeting, before the Lord. 24 The priest shall take the lamb of the guilt offering, and the log of oil, and shall present them as a wave offering before the Lord. 25 Next he shall kill the lamb of the guilt offering; and the priest is to take some of the blood of the guilt offering and put it on the lobe of the right ear of the one to be cleansed, and on the thumb of his right hand, and on the big toe of his right foot. 26 The priest shall pour some of the oil into his left palm, 27 and with his right finger the priest shall sprinkle some of the oil that is in his left palm seven times before the Lord. 28 The priest shall put some of the oil in his palm on the lobe of the right ear of the one to be cleansed, and on the thumb of his right hand, and on the big toe of his right foot, on the places where he has put the blood of the guilt offering. 29 The rest of the oil that is in the priest’s palm shall be put on the head of the one to be cleansed, to make atonement for him before the Lord. 30 Then he shall offer one of the turtledoves or young pigeons, which are within his means. 31 He shall offer what he can afford, one as a sin offering and the other as a burnt offering, together with the grain offering. The priest shall make atonement before the Lord on behalf of the one to be cleansed. 32 This is the law for the one in whom there is an infection of leprosy, [c]whose means are limited for his [ceremonial] cleansing.”

Cleansing an Infected House

33 The Lord further spoke to Moses and Aaron, saying,

34 “When you come into the land of Canaan, which I am giving you as a possession, and I put [d]a mark of leprosy on a house in your land, 35 then the one who owns the house shall come and tell the priest, ‘I have seen something that looks like a mark of leprosy in my house.’ 36 The priest shall order that they empty the house before he goes in to examine the mark, so that everything in the house will not have to be declared unclean; afterward he shall go in to see the house. 37 He shall examine the mark, and if the mark on the walls of the house has greenish or reddish depressions and appears deeper than the surface, 38 the priest shall go out of the house, to the doorway, and [e]quarantine the house for seven days. 39 The priest shall return on the seventh day and look; and if the mark has spread on the walls of the house, 40 he shall order them to tear out the contaminated stones and throw them into an unclean place outside the city. 41 He shall have the entire inside area of the house scraped, and the plaster that is scraped off shall be dumped in an unclean place outside the city. 42 Then they shall take new stones and replace the [contaminated] stones, and he shall take plaster and replaster the house.

43 “If, however, the mark breaks out again in the house after he has removed the stones and has scraped and replastered the house, 44 then the priest shall come and look again, and if the mark has spread in the house, it is a malignant leprosy in the house; it is [ceremonially] unclean. 45 He shall tear down the house—its stones and its timber and all the plaster of the house—and shall take everything outside the city to an unclean place. 46 Moreover, whoever goes into the house during the time that it is quarantined becomes unclean until evening. 47 And whoever lies down in the house [to rest] shall wash his clothes, and whoever eats in the house shall wash his clothes.

48 “But if the priest comes in and inspects it and the mark has not spread in the house after the house has been replastered, he shall pronounce the house clean because the mark has not reappeared. 49 To cleanse the house then, he shall take two birds and cedar wood and scarlet string and hyssop; 50 and he shall kill one of the birds in an earthenware container over running water, 51 and he shall take the cedar wood and the hyssop and the scarlet string, and the living bird, and dip them in the blood of the slain bird as well as in the running water, and sprinkle the house seven times. 52 So he shall cleanse the house with the blood of the bird and with the running water, along with the live bird and the cedar wood and the hyssop and the scarlet string. 53 But he shall let the live bird go free outside the city into the open field. So he shall make atonement for the house, and it will be clean.”

54 This is the law for any mark of leprosy—even for a scale, 55 and for the leprous garment or house, 56 and for a swelling, and for a scab, and for a bright spot on the skin— 57 to teach when they are unclean and when they are clean. This is the law of leprosy [in regard to both persons and property].

Notas al pie

  1. Leviticus 14:4 I.e. an aromatic plant.
  2. Leviticus 14:5 Lit living, an ancient concept probably based on motion as an indicator of life.
  3. Leviticus 14:32 Lit whose hand does not reach.
  4. Leviticus 14:34 Possibly mildew or mold, and so throughout the chapter. See 13:47-59 for similar instructions regarding fabric, leather, and other articles.
  5. Leviticus 14:38 Lit isolate.