Bibelen på hverdagsdansk

3 Mosebog 11

Regler for rene og urene dyr

1Derefter sagde Herren til Moses og Aron: 2-3 „Sig til Israels folk, at de dyr på landjorden, som må spises, indbefatter alle drøvtyggere med spaltede klove. Det vil sige, at følgende dyr regnes for urene, og de må ikke spises: Kamelen, som ganske vist tygger drøv, men ikke har spaltede klove, klippegrævlingen, som tygger drøv, men heller ikke har spaltede klove, haren, som tygger drøv, men som heller ikke har spaltede klove, svinet, som godt nok har spaltede klove, men ikke tygger drøv. I må ikke spise kød af disse dyr, eller røre dem, efter at de er døde, for I skal regne dem for urene.

Med hensyn til fisk må I spise alt, hvad der har både finner og skæl, uanset om I fanger dem i floderne eller i havet. 10 Men alle andre dyr, der lever i vandet, skal I regne for urene. 11 I må hverken spise deres kød eller røre ved dem, når de er døde. 12 Jeg gentager: Alle dyr, der lever i vandet, og som ikke har både finner og skæl, skal I regne for urene, og de må ikke spises.

13-19 I må ikke spise følgende fugle: Ørne, gribbe, fiskeørne, de forskellige falke- og høgearter, krager og ravne, strudse, hornugler, måger, skarver, ibiser, rørhøns, ørkenugler, storke, de forskellige hejrearter og hærfugle.[a] Flagermus er også urene og må ikke spises.

20-22 I må ikke spise insekter, undtagen de forskellige arter af græshopper. 23 Alle andre insekter skal I regne for urene.

24 Alle, der kommer i berøring med et dødt, urent dyr, bliver selv urene. 25 De skal vaske deres tøj med det samme og regnes for urene indtil samme aften.

26 Det samme gælder for alle, der rører ved dyr, der ikke er drøvtyggere eller har spaltede klove: de er urene indtil om aftenen. 27 Dyr med poter må I heller ikke spise. Hvis nogen rører et sådant dyr, når det er dødt, er de urene indtil aften. 28 Hvis nogen bliver nødt til bære på et sådant dødt dyr, skal de straks vaske deres tøj, og de er så urene til om aftenen.

29-30 Følgende smådyr skal I regne for urene: muldvarpe, mus, firben, gekkoer og kamæleoner.

31 Enhver, der rører ved døde dyr af den slags, er uren indtil aften. 32 Det samme gælder for ting, der kommer i berøring med sådanne døde dyr. De bliver urene. Hvis det drejer sig om en brugsgenstand af træ, tøj, skind eller sækkelærred, skal genstanden lægges i vand og regnes for uren indtil aften, men derefter kan den tages i brug igen. 33 Hvis et sådant urent, dødt dyr falder ned i en lerkrukke med vand, skal vandet regnes for urent, og krukken skal knuses. 34 Hvis noget af vandet sprøjter ud på nogle madvarer eller drikkevarer, skal de også regnes for urene.

35 Hvis et sådant dødt dyr kommer i berøring med en lerovn eller et ildsted af ler, skal de rives ned, for de er blevet urene. 36 Hvis dyret falder ned i en kilde eller et vandreservoir, bliver vandet ikke urent, men den, der fisker dyret op, bliver uren. 37 Hvis det døde dyr kommer i berøring med såsæd, bliver sæden ikke uren derved, 38 men hvis sæden er våd, og dyret falder ned i den, bliver sæden uren.

39 Alle selvdøde dyr er urene, også de dyr, som ellers ikke er urene. Hvis nogen rører ved et selvdødt dyr, vil de være urene indtil aften. 40 Hvis nogen spiser af dyrets kød eller bærer det døde dyr væk, skal de vaske deres tøj, og de er urene indtil om aftenen.

41-42 Dyr, som kravler på jorden, er urene og må ikke spises. Det indbefatter alle krybdyr, som glider på deres bug, såvel som krybdyr med ben. Intet dyr, som kravler på fire eller flere ben, må spises, for et sådant dyr er urent. 43 I må ikke engang røre ved et sådant dyr. Hvis I gør det, bliver I urene.

44-45 Jeg er Herren, jeres Gud, som førte jer ud af Egypten. Gør ikke jer selv urene med disse ting, men vær hellige, for jeg er hellig. 46 Disse love gælder jeres forhold til dyr og fugle inklusive alt, hvad der svømmer i vandet eller kravler på landjorden. 47 Når I kender disse love, kan I skelne imellem, hvilke dyr, der er rene og kan spises, og hvilke dyr, der er urene og derfor ikke må spises.”

Notas al pie

  1. 11,13-19 Betydningen af nogle af de hebraiske navne for fuglearter kendes ikke med sikkerhed.

King James Version

Leviticus 11

1And the Lord spake unto Moses and to Aaron, saying unto them,

Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, These are the beasts which ye shall eat among all the beasts that are on the earth.

Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is clovenfooted, and cheweth the cud, among the beasts, that shall ye eat.

Nevertheless these shall ye not eat of them that chew the cud, or of them that divide the hoof: as the camel, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you.

And the coney, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you.

And the hare, because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean unto you.

And the swine, though he divide the hoof, and be clovenfooted, yet he cheweth not the cud; he is unclean to you.

Of their flesh shall ye not eat, and their carcase shall ye not touch; they are unclean to you.

These shall ye eat of all that are in the waters: whatsoever hath fins and scales in the waters, in the seas, and in the rivers, them shall ye eat.

10 And all that have not fins and scales in the seas, and in the rivers, of all that move in the waters, and of any living thing which is in the waters, they shall be an abomination unto you:

11 They shall be even an abomination unto you; ye shall not eat of their flesh, but ye shall have their carcases in abomination.

12 Whatsoever hath no fins nor scales in the waters, that shall be an abomination unto you.

13 And these are they which ye shall have in abomination among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they are an abomination: the eagle, and the ossifrage, and the ospray,

14 And the vulture, and the kite after his kind;

15 Every raven after his kind;

16 And the owl, and the night hawk, and the cuckow, and the hawk after his kind,

17 And the little owl, and the cormorant, and the great owl,

18 And the swan, and the pelican, and the gier eagle,

19 And the stork, the heron after her kind, and the lapwing, and the bat.

20 All fowls that creep, going upon all four, shall be an abomination unto you.

21 Yet these may ye eat of every flying creeping thing that goeth upon all four, which have legs above their feet, to leap withal upon the earth;

22 Even these of them ye may eat; the locust after his kind, and the bald locust after his kind, and the beetle after his kind, and the grasshopper after his kind.

23 But all other flying creeping things, which have four feet, shall be an abomination unto you.

24 And for these ye shall be unclean: whosoever toucheth the carcase of them shall be unclean until the even.

25 And whosoever beareth ought of the carcase of them shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even.

26 The carcases of every beast which divideth the hoof, and is not clovenfooted, nor cheweth the cud, are unclean unto you: every one that toucheth them shall be unclean.

27 And whatsoever goeth upon his paws, among all manner of beasts that go on all four, those are unclean unto you: whoso toucheth their carcase shall be unclean until the even.

28 And he that beareth the carcase of them shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even: they are unclean unto you.

29 These also shall be unclean unto you among the creeping things that creep upon the earth; the weasel, and the mouse, and the tortoise after his kind,

30 And the ferret, and the chameleon, and the lizard, and the snail, and the mole.

31 These are unclean to you among all that creep: whosoever doth touch them, when they be dead, shall be unclean until the even.

32 And upon whatsoever any of them, when they are dead, doth fall, it shall be unclean; whether it be any vessel of wood, or raiment, or skin, or sack, whatsoever vessel it be, wherein any work is done, it must be put into water, and it shall be unclean until the even; so it shall be cleansed.

33 And every earthen vessel, whereinto any of them falleth, whatsoever is in it shall be unclean; and ye shall break it.

34 Of all meat which may be eaten, that on which such water cometh shall be unclean: and all drink that may be drunk in every such vessel shall be unclean.

35 And every thing whereupon any part of their carcase falleth shall be unclean; whether it be oven, or ranges for pots, they shall be broken down: for they are unclean and shall be unclean unto you.

36 Nevertheless a fountain or pit, wherein there is plenty of water, shall be clean: but that which toucheth their carcase shall be unclean.

37 And if any part of their carcase fall upon any sowing seed which is to be sown, it shall be clean.

38 But if any water be put upon the seed, and any part of their carcase fall thereon, it shall be unclean unto you.

39 And if any beast, of which ye may eat, die; he that toucheth the carcase thereof shall be unclean until the even.

40 And he that eateth of the carcase of it shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even: he also that beareth the carcase of it shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even.

41 And every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth shall be an abomination; it shall not be eaten.

42 Whatsoever goeth upon the belly, and whatsoever goeth upon all four, or whatsoever hath more feet among all creeping things that creep upon the earth, them ye shall not eat; for they are an abomination.

43 Ye shall not make yourselves abominable with any creeping thing that creepeth, neither shall ye make yourselves unclean with them, that ye should be defiled thereby.

44 For I am the Lord your God: ye shall therefore sanctify yourselves, and ye shall be holy; for I am holy: neither shall ye defile yourselves with any manner of creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.

45 For I am the Lord that bringeth you up out of the land of Egypt, to be your God: ye shall therefore be holy, for I am holy.

46 This is the law of the beasts, and of the fowl, and of every living creature that moveth in the waters, and of every creature that creepeth upon the earth:

47 To make a difference between the unclean and the clean, and between the beast that may be eaten and the beast that may not be eaten.