Bibelen på hverdagsdansk

1 Samuel 14

Jonatans heltedåd og filistrenes nederlag

1En dag sagde Jonatan til den unge mand, som bar hans våben: „Kom, lad os snige os over til filistrenes udpost på den anden side af bjergpasset.” Men han sagde ikke til sin far, at han tog af sted.

Saul og hans 600 mænd lå i lejr ved granatæbletræet på bakken[a] ved Migron. Blandt mændene var også præsten Ahija, som bar den hellige efod. Hans far var Ahitub, Ikabods bror, hans farfar var Pinehas, og hans oldefar var Eli, som havde været Herrens præst i Shilo.

Ingen havde lagt mærke til, at Jonatan havde forladt lejren. For at nå frem til filistrene måtte Jonatan igennem et pas, som lå i en kløft med et stort klippefremspring på hver side. De to klippeformationer var kendt under navnene Botzetz og Sene. Den ene lå mod nord i retning af Mikmas, og den anden mod syd i retning af Geba.

„Kom, lad os gå over til de uomskårne og ugudelige filistre,” sagde Jonatan til sin våbenbærer. „Måske vil Herren hjælpe os. Herren kan give os sejr, hvad enten vi er mange eller få.”

„Gør, som du vil!” svarede våbendrageren. „Jeg går med dig, lige meget hvad du finder på.”

8-10 „Godt, så hør her,” fortsatte Jonatan. „Vi sørger for, at de opdager os, når vi går derover. Hvis de siger: ‚Bliv stående, vi kommer ned til jer,’ så går vi ikke derop. Men hvis de siger: ‚Kom herop!’ så går vi derop, for så er det et signal fra Herren om, at han vil give os sejr.”

11 Da filistrene nu fik øje på dem, råbte de til hinanden: „Se! Nogle af hebræerne er krøbet frem fra deres skjulesteder.” 12 Så råbte de til Jonatan: „Kom herop, så skal vi give jer en lærestreg.”

„Følg efter mig!” sagde Jonatan til våbendrageren. „For Herren vil give Israels folk sejren.”

13 Så klatrede de op ad skrænten på hænder og fødder, og Jonatan huggede filistrene ned, mens våbendrageren fulgte i hælene på ham og dræbte dem, Jonatan havde såret. 14 Under dette første slag dræbte de 20 filistre på et ca. 2000 kvadratmeter stort areal. 15 Samtidig sendte Gud et jordskælv, som skabte rædsel og panik blandt filistrene, både i selve lejren og udenfor blandt udkigsposterne og kampstyrkerne. 16 Sauls udkigsposter i Geba[b] lagde mærke til den forvirring, der opstod i fjendens rækker.

17 „Find ud af, om nogen af vores mænd har forladt lejren,” befalede Saul, og det viste sig, at Jonatan og hans våbendrager manglede. 18 „Hent den hellige vest frem!” råbte Saul til præsten Ahija. På den tid var det nemlig Ahija, der havde ansvar for den hellige vest,[c] som man brugte, når man ville spørge Herren til råds. 19 Men mens Saul talte med Ahija, blev tumulten og støjen i filistrenes lejr værre og værre. „Lad det bare være!” råbte Saul til ham. 20 Så kastede Saul og hans 600 mænd sig ind i kampen, og forvirringen var så stor blandt filistrene, at de rask væk huggede hinanden ned. 21 De hebræere, der før kæmpede på filistrenes side, gjorde nu mytteri og gik over på israelitternes side. 22 Til sidst kom resten af de israelitiske soldater frem fra deres skjulesteder i bjergene og deltog i forfølgelsen af de flygtende filistre. 23 Den dag frelste Herren Israel, og israelitterne forfulgte filistrene helt til den anden side af Bet-Aven.

Sauls dumhed

24-26 Israelitterne var helt udmattede, fordi Saul havde erklæret: „Forbandet være den, som tager sig tid til at spise noget i dag, for jeg vil have fuldstændig hævn over mine fjender.” De var alle så bange for forbandelsen, at ingen turde spise noget hele dagen, ikke engang den smule honning, de fandt rundt omkring, 27 Men Jonatan, der ikke havde hørt sin fars erklæring, stak sit spyd i en bikage og fiskede lidt honning frem, og da han havde spist honningen, følte han sig stærk igen. 28 En af mændene, som så ham gøre det, sagde: „Din far tog hele hæren i ed og sagde: ‚Forbandet være den, som spiser noget i dag.’ Det er derfor, vi alle er så udmattede.”

29 „Sådan en befaling skader os kun,” udbrød Jonatan. „Se bare, hvor frisk jeg er nu efter at have spist en smule honning. 30 Forestil jer, hvor mange flere fjender vi kunne have dræbt, hvis vores mænd havde spist noget af den mad, de fandt i fjendens lejr. Men nu slipper filistrene væk i stedet.”

31 Efter at have kæmpet mod filistrene hele dagen fra Mikmas til Ajjalon, var krigerne så udmattede og sultne, 32 at de kastede sig over krigsbyttet og begyndte at slagte får og geder, køer og kalve på den bare jord og spise kødet uden først at lade blodet løbe fra. 33 Da Saul blev underrettet om, at hans hær havde syndet imod Herren ved at spise kød med blodet i, sagde han: „Det er forfærdeligt! Folket overtræder jo Guds bud! Skynd jer og rul en stor sten herhen! 34 Gå så ud til krigerne og giv dem ordre til at føre køerne, gederne og fårene hertil, så vi kan slagte dem her og lade blodet løbe fra. I må ikke synde imod Herren!” I nattens løb kom krigerne med det kvæg, de havde taget i krigsbytte, og det blev slagtet efter forskrifterne. 35 Der byggede Saul et alter for Herren. Det var første gang han byggede et alter.

36 Bagefter opfordrede Saul sine mænd til at genoptage forfølgelsen. „Lad os forfølge filistrene hele natten og udrydde dem rub og stub,” sagde han.

„Som du vil,” svarede de. Men præsten Ahija indvendte: „Lad os først spørge Gud til råds.”

37 Så spurgte Saul Gud: „Skal vi forfølge filistrene? Vil du fortsat hjælpe os med at slå dem?” Men Herren gav ikke noget svar.

38 Da sammenkaldte Saul alle sine officerer og sagde til dem: „Der er noget galt, siden Gud ikke svarer os. Vi må finde ud af, hvilken synd der er begået i dag. 39 Jeg sværger ved Gud på, at om så synderen er min egen søn Jonatan, skal han dø.” Men ingen turde fortælle ham sagens rette sammenhæng.

40 Saul forlangte nu, at de skulle stille sig på den ene side, mens han selv og Jonatan stillede sig på den anden side. Det gjorde de. 41 Så bad han denne bøn: „Herre, Israels Gud, vis os nu, hvem der har skylden. Er det Jonatan og mig, eller ligger skylden hos hæren?” Da faldt det hellige lod på Saul og Jonatan, mens hæren gik fri.

42 „Okay,” fortsatte Saul, „så kast lod mellem mig og Jonatan.” Da faldt loddet på Jonatan.

43 „Sig mig, hvad du har gjort,” forlangte Saul.

„Jeg spiste lidt honning fra spidsen af mit spyd,” svarede Jonatan. „Så lad mig da dø.”

44 „Jeg har svoret en ed,” svarede Saul. „Derfor skal du dø for din ulydighed.”

45 Men de omkringstående protesterede: „Ikke tale om! Det er jo Jonatan, vi kan takke for den sejr, vi har vundet i dag. Vi sværger ved den levende Gud, at vi ikke vil tillade, at der krummes et hår på hans hoved, for det var ved Guds hjælp, at han vandt sejren for os i dag.” Derved reddede mændene Jonatan fra at blive henrettet.

46 Da opgav Saul at genoptage forfølgelsen, og filistrene vendte hjem til deres eget land.

Sauls militære sejre

47 Nu da Saul havde styrket sin position som konge i Israel, førte han krig mod sine fjender i alle retninger: moabitterne og ammonitterne mod øst, edomitterne mod syd, Zobas konger[d] mod nord og filistrene mod vest. Hvor som helst han kom frem, vandt han sejr over sine fjender. 48 Han udførte store heltegerninger ved blandt andet at besejre amalekitterne og dermed frelse Israels folk fra deres plageånder.

49 Saul havde sønnerne Jonatan, Jishvi og Malkishua, og døtrene Merab og Mikal. 50 Sauls kone hed Ahinoam og var en datter af Ahimaʼatz. Sauls hærfører var hans fætter Abner, en søn af hans farbror, Ner. 51 Ner og Sauls far, Kish, var altså brødre, og deres far hed Abiel.

52 Krigen mod filistrene stod på, så længe Saul levede. Hver gang Saul så en tapper og stærk ung mand, hvervede han ham til sin hær.

Notas al pie

  1. 14,2 På hebraisk: Gibea, som betyder bakke eller høj. Her kan det næppe henvise til byen af samme navn.
  2. 14,16 På hebraisk: Benjamins Gibea/Geba/høj. Se noterne til 10,5 og 13,2.
  3. 14,18 I denne hellige vest, som på hebraisk hedder efod, blev de to hellige lodder, Urim og Tummim, opbevaret. Dem brugte den øverste præst til at finde Guds vilje ved lodkastning. Oversættelsen her bygger på Septuaginta. Den masoretiske tekst taler om at bringe arken frem.
  4. 14,47 Zoba er et område beboet af aramæere (syrere), jf. 2.Sam. 10,8, 1.Krøn. 19,6.

Amplified Bible

1 Samuel 14

Jonathan’s Victory

1One day Jonathan the son of Saul said to his young armor bearer, “Come, let us go over to the Philistine garrison on the other side.” But he did not tell his father. Saul was staying in the outskirts of Gibeah under a pomegranate tree in Migron; and with him were about six hundred men, and Ahijah the son of Ichabod’s brother Ahitub the son of Phinehas, the son of Eli, the Lord’s priest at Shiloh, was wearing the ephod. And the people did not know that Jonathan had gone. Between the passes by which Jonathan sought to cross over to get to the Philistine garrison, there was a rocky crag on the one side and a rocky crag on the other side; one [crag] was named Bozez, and the other, Seneh. The one crag was on the north in front of Michmash, and the other on the south in front of Geba.

Jonathan said to his young armor bearer, “Come, let us cross over to the garrison of these uncircumcised men; it may be that the Lord will work for us. For there is nothing to prevent the Lord from saving, whether by many or by few.” And his armor bearer said to him, “Do everything that is in your heart (mind); here I am with you [a]in whatever you think [best].” Jonathan said, “See now, we are going to cross over to the [Philistine] men and reveal ourselves to them. If they say to us, ‘Wait until we come to you,’ then we will stand in our place and not go up to them. 10 But if they say, ‘Come up to us,’ we will go up, for the Lord has handed them over to us; and this shall be the sign to us.” 11 When both of them revealed themselves to the garrison of the Philistines, the Philistines said, “Look, the Hebrews are coming out of the holes where they have hidden themselves.” 12 So the men of the garrison responded to Jonathan and his armor bearer, “Come up to us and we will tell you something.” Jonathan said to his armor bearer, “Climb up after me, for the Lord has given them into the hands of Israel.” 13 Then Jonathan climbed up on his hands and feet, his armor bearer following after him. The enemy fell before Jonathan [in combat], and his armor bearer killed some of them after him. 14 That first slaughter which Jonathan and his armor bearer made was about twenty men within about half a [plow] furrow in a plot of land [the area of which a yoke of oxen could plow in a day]. 15 And there was trembling in the [Philistine] camp, in the field, and among all the people; even the garrison and the raiding party trembled [in fear], and the earth quaked and it became a trembling and terror from God.

16 Saul’s watchmen in Gibeah of Benjamin looked, and behold, the multitude melted away and they went here and there. 17 Then Saul said to the people with him, “Take a count and see who has left us.” When they had taken a count, behold, Jonathan and his armor bearer were missing. 18 Saul said to Ahijah [the priest], “Bring the ark of God here.” For at that time the ark of God was with the sons of Israel. 19 While Saul talked to the priest, the commotion in the Philistine camp continued and increased, so Saul said to the priest, “Withdraw your hand.” 20 Then Saul and all the people who were with him rallied and went into the battle; and behold, every [Philistine] man’s sword was against his companion, in wild confusion. 21 Now the Hebrews who were with the Philistines previously, who went up with them all around in the camp, they also turned to be with the Israelites who were with Saul and Jonathan. 22 When all the men of Israel who had hidden themselves in the hill country of Ephraim heard that the Philistines had fled, they too pursued them closely in the battle. 23 So the Lord saved Israel that day, and the battle spread beyond Beth-aven.

Saul’s Foolish Order

24 But the men of Israel were hard-pressed that day, because Saul had put the people under a curse, saying, “Cursed be the man who eats food before evening, and before I have taken vengeance on my enemies.” So none of the people ate any food. 25 All the people of the land came to a forest, and there was honey on the ground. 26 When the people entered the forest, the honey was dripping, but no man put his hand to his mouth [to taste it], because the people feared the oath [of Saul]. 27 But Jonathan had not heard when his father put the people under the oath. So he put out the end of the staff that was in his hand and dipped it into a honeycomb, and then he put his hand to his mouth, and his [b]energy was restored. 28 But one of the people told him, “Your father strictly put the people under an oath, saying, ‘Cursed be the man who eats food today.’” And the people were exhausted [and hungry]. 29 Then Jonathan said, “My father has troubled the land [with his foolish curse]. See how my [c]energy is restored because I tasted a little of this honey. 30 How much better [it would have been] if only the people had eaten freely today from the spoil of their enemies which they found! For now the slaughter among the Philistines has not been great.”

31 They struck the Philistines that day from Michmash to Aijalon. And the people were very tired. 32 [When night came and the oath ended] the people rushed greedily upon the spoil. They took sheep, oxen, and calves, and slaughtered them on the ground; and they ate them [raw] with the blood [still in them]. 33 Then Saul was told, “Look, the people are sinning against the Lord by eating [the meat] with the blood.” And he said, “You have violated [the Law] and acted treacherously; roll a large stone to me today.” 34 Saul said, “Spread out among the people and tell them, ‘Each one of you bring me his ox or his sheep, and butcher it [properly] here and eat; and do not sin against the Lord by eating [the meat with] the blood.’” So that night each one brought his ox with him and butchered it there. 35 And Saul built an altar to the Lord; it was the first altar that he built to the Lord.

36 Then Saul said, “Let us go down after the Philistines by night and plunder them until the morning light, and let us not leave a man of them [alive].” They said, “Do whatever seems good to you.” Then the priest said, “Let us approach God here.” 37 Saul asked [counsel] of God, “Shall I go down after the Philistines? Will You hand them over to Israel?” But He did not answer him that day. 38 Then Saul said, “Come here, all you who are leaders of the people, and let us find out how this sin [causing God’s silence] happened today. 39 For as the Lord lives, who saves Israel, for even if the guilt is in my son Jonathan, he shall most certainly die.” But not one of all the people answered him. 40 Then he said to all the Israelites, “[d]You shall be on one side; I and my son Jonathan will be on the other side.” The people said to Saul, “Do what seems good to you.” 41 Therefore, Saul said to the Lord, the God of Israel, “Give a perfect lot [identifying the transgressor].” Then Saul and Jonathan were selected [by lot], but the other men went free. 42 Saul said, “Cast [lots] between me and my son Jonathan.” And Jonathan was selected.

43 Saul said to Jonathan, “Tell me what you have done.” So Jonathan told him, “I tasted a little honey with the end of the staff that was in my hand. Here I am, I must die!” 44 Saul answered, “May God do so [to me], and more also [if I do not keep my word], for you shall most certainly die, Jonathan.” 45 But the people said to Saul, “Must Jonathan, who has brought about this great victory in Israel, be put to death? Far from it! As the Lord lives, not one hair of his head shall fall to the ground, for he has worked with God this day.” So the people rescued Jonathan and he was not put to death. 46 Then Saul stopped pursuing the Philistines, and the Philistines went to their own place.

Constant Warfare

47 When Saul assumed control of the kingdom of Israel, he fought against all his enemies on every side: Moab, the sons (descendants) of Ammon, Edom, the kings of Zobah, and the Philistines. Wherever he turned, he inflicted punishment. 48 He acted valiantly and defeated the Amalekites, and rescued Israel from the hands of those who had plundered them.

49 Now Saul’s sons were Jonathan, Ishvi, and Malchi-shua. The names of his two daughters were these: the name of the firstborn was Merab, and the name of the younger, Michal. 50 The name of Saul’s wife was Ahinoam the daughter of Ahimaaz. The commander of his army was named Abner, the son of Ner, Saul’s uncle. 51 Kish was the father of Saul, and Ner the father of Abner was the son of Abiel.

52 Now the war against the Philistines was severe (brutal, relentless) all the days of Saul; and whenever Saul saw any mighty or courageous man, he recruited him for his staff.

Notas al pie

  1. 1 Samuel 14:7 Lit according to your heart.
  2. 1 Samuel 14:27 Lit eyes brightened.
  3. 1 Samuel 14:29 Lit eyes have brightened.
  4. 1 Samuel 14:40 To identify the guilty party, Saul decided to have lots cast, which was a common and accepted means of finding God’s will. It may be that the Urim and Thummim that were kept in the priest’s breastpiece were used for this purpose (Ex 28:30). Saul chose to narrow the search by first separating Jonathan and himself from the rest of the people, only to discover (v 41) that the people were in fact innocent.