The Banquets of the King
1It was in the days of Ahasuerus ([a]Xerxes) who reigned from India to Ethiopia (Cush) over 127 provinces, 2 in those days when King Ahasuerus sat on his royal throne which was at the citadel in [b]Susa [the capital of the Persian Empire], 3 in the third year of his reign he held a banquet for all his officials and his attendants. The army officers of Persia and Media, the nobles and the officials of the provinces were there in his presence. 4 And he displayed the riches of his glorious kingdom and the splendor of his great majesty for many days, 180 days in all.
5 When these days were completed, the king held a banquet for all the people who were present at the citadel in Susa [the capital], from the greatest [in importance] to the least, a seven-day feast in the courtyard of the garden of the king’s palace. 6 There were curtains (draperies) of fine white and violet linen fastened with cords of fine purple linen to silver rings and marble columns. The couches of gold and silver rested on a mosaic floor of [c]porphyry, marble, mother-of-pearl, and precious colored stones. 7 Drinks were served in various kinds of golden goblets, and the royal wine was plentiful, in accordance with the generosity of the king. 8 The drinking was carried on in accordance with the law; no one was compelled [to drink], for the king had directed each official of his household to comply with each guest’s wishes. 9 Queen Vashti also held a [separate] banquet for the women in the palace of King Ahasuerus.
Queen Vashti’s Refusal
10 On the seventh day, when the king’s heart was joyful with wine (in high spirits), he commanded Mehuman, Biztha, Harbona, Bigtha, Abagtha, Zethar, and Carkas, the seven [d]eunuchs who served in the presence of King Ahasuerus [as his attendants], 11 to bring Queen Vashti before the king, [e]wearing her royal crown (high turban), to display her beauty before the people and the officials, for she was lovely to see. 12 But Queen Vashti refused to come at the king’s command, which was delivered [to her] by the eunuchs. So the king became extremely angry and burned with rage.
13 Then the king spoke to the wise men who understood the times [asking for their advice]—for it was the custom of the king to speak before all those who were familiar with law and legal matters— 14 and who were close to him [as advisors]: Carshena, Shethar, Admatha, Tarshish, Meres, Marsena, and Memucan, the seven officials of Persia and Media who had access to the king and were ranked highest in the kingdom. 15 [He said,] “According to the law, what is to be done with Queen Vashti because she did not obey the command of King Ahasuerus which was conveyed by the eunuchs?” 16 And Memucan answered in the presence of the king and the officials, “Vashti the queen has not only wronged the king but [also] all the officials (royal representatives) and all the peoples who are in all the provinces of King Ahasuerus. 17 For the queen’s conduct will become known to all women, causing them to look on their husbands with contempt (disrespect), since they will say, ‘King Ahasuerus commanded Queen Vashti to be brought before him, but she did not come.’ 18 This [very] day the ladies of Persia and Media who have heard of the queen’s refusal will speak [in the same way] to all the king’s officials, and there will be plenty of contempt and anger. 19 If it pleases the king, let a royal command be issued by him and let it be written in the laws of the Persians and Medes so that it cannot be repealed or modified, that Vashti is [f]no longer to come before King Ahasuerus; and let the king give her royal position to another who is better and more worthy than she. 20 So when the king’s great decree is proclaimed throughout his [extensive] kingdom, all women will give honor to their husbands, from the great to the insignificant.”
21 This statement (advice) pleased the king and the officials, and the king did what Memucan proposed. 22 So he sent letters to all the royal provinces, to each province in its own script and to each people in their own language, saying that every man should be the master and rule in his own home and that [g]he should speak [in the household] in the language of his own people.
Notas al pie
- Esther 1:1 Ahasuerus’ Greek name was Xerxes (I), his Persian name was Khshayarshan. Xerxes I (also known as Xerxes the Great the son of Darius the Great), ruled 486-465 b.c. He is the Xerxes who invaded Greece, was stopped temporarily at Thermopylae, defeated at the naval battle at Salamis, and nearly annihilated at Plataea (479 b.c.). The French excavations at Susa in 1880-1890 uncovered the great palace of Xerxes, where Esther would have lived. The building covered two and one-half acres. The finds at Susa from this period were so astonishing that the Louvre in Paris devoted two large rooms to the exhibition of the treasures. Xerxes’ tomb (looted in antiquity) is believed to be among the rock-cut tombs located at Naqsh-e Rajab, an archeological site in Iran about ten miles northwest of the site of ancient Persepolis.
- Esther 1:2 Susa was located about a hundred and fifty miles east of the Tigris River. The site, now modern day Shush, Iran, is considered to be one of the world’s oldest continuously inhabited cities. An ancient tomb presumed to be that of Daniel is located in the area.
- Esther 1:6 An Egyptian rock of feldspar crystals embedded in a dark red or purple groundmass used as flooring.
- Esther 1:10 Eunuchs were the men who were placed in charge of the king’s harem, and for that reason had been castrated.
- Esther 1:11 According to Jewish tradition Ahasuerus’ guests demanded that Vashti be naked, except for her royal turban to confirm that she was the queen and not just a servant-girl. She pleaded with Ahasuerus using several arguments, one of which was that if the guests found her beautiful, they would want to ravish her and kill him; and if not, her lack of beauty would disgrace him.
- Esther 1:19 The intent may have been simply to confine Vashti to the king’s harem and put another wife on the throne. The ancient rabbis said, however, that when the king accepted the advice, he ordered that Vashti be beheaded and her head brought to him on a platter.
- Esther 1:22 In recognition of the position of her husband a foreign-born wife was to speak his language.
황후 와스디의 폐위
1이것은 인도에서부터 1:1 원문에는 ‘구스’에티오피아까지 127도를 다스린 메디아 – 페르시아 제국 의 1:1 또는 ‘아하수에로왕’크셀크세스황제 당시에 일어난 일이다.
2-3크셀크세스황제는 수산궁에서 즉위한 지 3년 만에 성대한 잔치를 베풀고 그의 모든 신하들과 고위 관리, 그리고 메디아와 페르시아의 군 지휘관들과 각 도의 총독과 귀족들을 모두 초대하였다.
4꼬박 6개월 동안 계속된 그 잔치에서 황제는 부강한 자기 제국의 화려함과 위엄을 과시하였다.
5그 잔치가 끝나자 황제는 다시 수산성에 사는 모든 일반 백성을 위해 궁전 뜰에서 7일 동안 잔치를 베풀었다.
6그 뜰에는 흰 휘장과 푸른 휘장이 쳐져 있었는데 그것들은 자색의 가는 베줄로 대리석 기둥의 은고리에 매여 있었다. 그리고 금과 은으로 만든 긴 의자들이 검고 붉고 희고 노란 갖가지 대리석이 깔린 뜰에 놓여 있었다.
7황제는 황실의 술을 한없이 내놓아 모든 사람에게 모양이 각기 다른 금술잔으로 마시게 했으며
8황실 관리에게 명령하여 손님들에게 술을 억지로 권하지 말고 자기들이 먹고 싶은 대로 자유롭게 마실 수 있도록 하였다.
9한편 황후 와스디도 황실에 있는 여자들을 위해 잔치를 베풀었다.
10잔치 마지막 날에 황제는 얼근하게 취하자 기분이 좋아 그를 시중드는 일곱 내시, 곧 므후만, 비스다, 하르보나, 빅다, 아박다, 세달, 가르가스를 불러
11황후 와스디에게 면류관을 씌워 데려오라고 명령하였다. 이것은 황후가 아름다우므로 잔치에 모인 모든 사람들에게 그녀의 미모를 보이고 싶었기 때문이었다.
12그러나 황후 와스디가 내시들의 말을 듣고 오기를 거절하므로 황제는 화가 나서 견딜 수 없었다.
13이 당시에 황제는 법적인 문제에 대하여 전문가들에게 물어 보는 것이 상례로 되어 있었다.
14그래서 그는 자기 측근에 있는 법률 문제 담당 자문관들을 불렀다. 그들은 가르스나, 세달, 아드마다, 다시스, 메레스, 마르스나, 므무간이었으며 이들 일곱 사람은 메디아 – 페르시아 제국에서 가장 높은 지위를 가진 사람들이었다.
15황제가 그들에게 물었다. “황후 와스디는 내시들을 통해 전한 이 크셀크세스황제의 명령에 복종하지 않았다. 이럴 경우 어떻게 하면 좋겠느냐? 법에서는 무엇이라고 규정하고 있느냐?”
16그러자 므무간이 대답하였다. “와스디황후는 황제에게만 잘못한 것이 아니라 황제께서 다스리시는 각 도의 모든 귀족들과 백성들에게도 잘못하였습니다.
17황후가 행한 일이 제국 안의 모든 부인들에게 알려지게 되면 그들이 자기 남편을 무시하며 ‘크셀크세스황제가 와스디황후에게 오라고 명령해도 황후는 가지 않았어요’ 하고 대꾸할 것입니다.
18오늘이라도 페르시아와 메디아의 귀부인들이 황후가 행한 일을 들으면 그들의 남편에게 그런 식으로 말하여 남편을 멸시할 것이며 남편들은 분노를 느낄 것입니다.
19그러므로 황제 폐하께서 좋게 여기신다면 칙령을 내려 와스디를 다시는 황제 앞에 나타나지 못하게 하고 그것을 페르시아와 메디아의 국법으로 정하여 변경할 수 없게 하며 황후의 위를 그보다 나은 사람에게 주십시오.
20황제의 칙령이 이 광대한 제국 곳곳에 발표되면 빈부 귀천을 막론하고 모든 부인들이 자기 남편을 존경할 것입니다.”
21황제와 그의 모든 자문관들이 이것을 좋게 여기므로 황제는 므무간의 조언에 따라
22각 민족의 언어로 모든 도에 칙령을 내려 모든 남편은 가장으로서의 권위를 가지고 자기 집안을 다스리라고 하였다.