Amplified Bible

1 Samuel 20

David and Jonathan’s Covenant

1David fled from Naioth in Ramah and he came and said to Jonathan, “What have I done? What is my [a]guilt? What is my sin before (against) your father, that he is seeking my life?” Jonathan said to him, “Far from it! You shall not die. My father does nothing [b]important or insignificant without telling me. So why would he hide this thing from me? It is not so!” But David vowed again, saying “Your father certainly knows that I have found favor in your sight, and he has said, ‘Do not let Jonathan know this, or he will be worried.’ But truly as the Lord lives and as your soul lives, there is hardly a step between me and death.” Then Jonathan said to David, “Whatever you say, I will do for you.” David said to Jonathan, “Behold, tomorrow is the New Moon [observance], and I should sit at the table to eat [the sacrificial meal] with the king; but let me go, so that I may hide myself in the field until the third evening. If your father misses me at all, then say, ‘David earnestly asked permission from me to go to Bethlehem, his city, because it is the yearly sacrifice there for the entire family.’ If he says, ‘All right,’ your servant will be safe; but if he is very angry, then be certain that he has decided on evil. Therefore show kindness to your servant, because you have brought your servant into a covenant of the Lord with you. But if there is iniquity (guilt) in me, kill me yourself; for why should you bring me to your father [to be killed]?” Jonathan said, “Far be it from [happening to] you! In fact, if I indeed learn that my father has decided to harm you, would I not tell you about it?” 10 Then David said to Jonathan, “Who will tell me if your father answers you harshly?” 11 Jonathan said to David, “Come, let us go out into the field [to talk].” So they went out to the field.

12 Then Jonathan said to David, “The Lord, the God of Israel, is my witness! When I have sounded out my father about this time tomorrow, or the third day, behold, if he has a good feeling toward [c]you, shall I not then send word to you and make it known to you? 13 But if it pleases my father to do you harm, may the Lord do so to Jonathan, and more if I do not let you know about it and send you away, so that you may go in [d]safety. And [e]may the Lord be with you as He has been with my father. 14 If I am still alive, will you not show me the lovingkindness and faithfulness of the Lord, [f]so that I will not die? 15 You shall never cut off your lovingkindness and faithfulness from my house, not even when the Lord cuts off every one of the enemies of David from the face of the earth.” 16 So Jonathan made a covenant with the [g]house of David. [[h]He added,] “May [i]the Lord require it at the hands of David’s enemies. [that is, hold them accountable for any harm they inflict on David].” 17 Jonathan made David vow again because of his love for him, for Jonathan loved him as himself.

18 Then Jonathan said to David, “Tomorrow is the New Moon [festival], and you will be missed because your seat will be empty. 19 When you have stayed for three days, you shall go down quickly and come to the place where you hid yourself [j]on that eventful day [when my father tried to kill you], and shall stay by the stone Ezel. 20 I will shoot three arrows to the side of it, as though I shot at a target. 21 And I will send a boy, saying, ‘Go, find the arrows.’ If I specifically say to the boy, ‘Look, the arrows are on this side of you, get them,’ then come [back to my father’s table]; for it is [k]safe for you and there is [l]no danger, as the Lord lives. 22 But if I say to the boy, ‘Look, the arrows are beyond you,’ then go, for the Lord has sent you away. 23 As for the agreement of which you and I have spoken, behold, the Lord is between you and me forever [making sure that we each keep our word].”

24 So David hid in the field; and when the New Moon [festival] came, the king sat down to eat food. 25 The king sat on his seat as on previous occasions, on his seat by the wall; then Jonathan stood up, and Abner [his commander] sat down by Saul’s side, but David’s place was empty. 26 Yet Saul did not say anything that day, for he thought, “It is an incident [of some kind] and [m]he is not [ceremonially] clean—surely he is unclean.” 27 But on the next day, the second day of the new moon, David’s place was empty [again]; and Saul said to Jonathan his son, “Why has the son of Jesse not come to the meal, either yesterday or today?” 28 Jonathan answered Saul, “David earnestly asked me for permission to go to Bethlehem. 29 He said, ‘Please let me go because our family is holding a sacrifice in the city, and my brother has commanded me to attend. Now, if I have found favor in your eyes, please let me slip away so that I may see my brothers.’ That is why he has not come to the king’s table.”

Saul Is Angry with Jonathan

30 Then Saul’s anger burned against Jonathan and he said to him, “You son of a [n]wayward, rebellious woman! Do I not know that you have chosen the son of Jesse [over me] to your own shame, and to the shame of your mother’s nakedness? 31 For as long as the son of Jesse lives on the earth, neither you [as heir to the throne] nor your kingdom will be established. So now, send [someone] and bring him to me, for he [o]must die.” 32 Jonathan answered Saul his father, “Why must he be put to death? What has he done?” 33 Then Saul hurled his spear at him to strike him down, so Jonathan knew [without any doubt] that his father had decided to put David to death. 34 Then Jonathan stood up from the table in the heat of anger, and ate no food on that second day of the new moon (month), for he grieved and worried about David because his father had dishonored him.

35 In the morning Jonathan went out to the field for the meeting with David, and a young boy was with him. 36 And he said to his boy, “Run, please find the arrows which I am about to shoot.” As the boy ran, he shot an arrow past him. 37 When the boy came to the place where Jonathan had shot the arrow, Jonathan called to him, “Is the arrow not beyond you?” 38 And Jonathan called out after the boy, “Hurry, be quick, do not stay!” So Jonathan’s boy picked up the arrow and came back to his master. 39 But the boy was not aware of anything; only Jonathan and David knew about the matter. 40 Jonathan gave his weapons to his boy and said to him, “Go, take them to the city.” 41 As soon as the boy was gone, David got up from the south side [beside the mound of stones] and fell on his face to the ground [in submission and respect], and bowed three times. Then they kissed one another and wept together, but David wept more. 42 Jonathan told David, “Go [p]in safety, inasmuch as we have sworn to each other in the name of the Lord, saying, ‘The Lord shall be between me and you, and between my descendants and yours forever.’” [q]Then he stood and left, while Jonathan went into the city.

Notas al pie

  1. 1 Samuel 20:1 Or iniquity.
  2. 1 Samuel 20:2 Lit great or small.
  3. 1 Samuel 20:12 Lit David.
  4. 1 Samuel 20:13 Lit shalom.
  5. 1 Samuel 20:13 With this statement Jonathan acknowledges that David has been anointed king.
  6. 1 Samuel 20:14 To secure his throne a new king would usually kill anyone who was a potential rival for the throne. Jonathan is asking assurance that he will not be assassinated after David becomes king.
  7. 1 Samuel 20:16 This covenant was binding not only on David and Jonathan, but also on their descendants.
  8. 1 Samuel 20:16 This may have been the additional vow mentioned in v 17.
  9. 1 Samuel 20:16 Jonathan was aligning himself with David against all of David’s enemies, including Saul.
  10. 1 Samuel 20:19 Lit on the day of the doing.
  11. 1 Samuel 20:21 Lit shalom.
  12. 1 Samuel 20:21 Lit nothing.
  13. 1 Samuel 20:26 Saul assumed that David had come into contact with a source of ritual pollution, such as a corpse, and was for that reason temporarily disqualified from participating in the New Moon Festival.
  14. 1 Samuel 20:30 The vulgar language of this Hebrew idiom demeaned Jonathan, not his mother, and Saul implied that she was ashamed of giving birth to him.
  15. 1 Samuel 20:31 Lit is a son of death.
  16. 1 Samuel 20:42 Lit in shalom.
  17. 1 Samuel 20:42 In Hebrew, this is v 1 of the next chapter making the versification different throughout ch 21.

Japanese Living Bible

サムエル記Ⅰ 20






「明日から新月の祝いが始まります。これまではいつも、私はこの祝いの席にお父上と同席してきました。しかし、明日は野に隠れ、三日目の夕方まで潜んでいるつもりです。 もしお父上が私のことをお尋ねになったら、こう言ってください。『ベツレヘムの実家に行きたいと願い出たので帰しました。年に一度、一族全員が集まるのだそうです。』 もしお父上が、『そうか』とうなずかれるなら、私は取り越し苦労をしていたことになります。しかし、もしご立腹なさるなら、私を殺すおつもりなのです。 義兄弟の契りを結んだ者として、どうかこのことを引き受けてください。もし私がお父上に罪を犯したのであれば、あなたの手で私を殺してもかまいません。しかし、私を裏切ってお父上の手に引き渡すようなまねだけはしないでください。」


10 「では、お父上が腹を立てておられるかどうか、どんな方法で知らせてくれますか。」

11 「さあ、いっしょに野に出よう。」


12 ヨナタンはダビデに言いました。「イスラエルの神にかけて約束する。明日の今ごろ、遅くともあさっての今ごろには、父に君のことを話してみよう。そうして、父の気持ちをすぐに知らせるよ。 13 もし腹を立てて君のいのちをねらっているとわかったら、必ず知らせる。もし知らせずに君の逃亡を妨げるようなことがあれば、私は主に殺されてもいい。かつて主が父とともにおられたように、君とともにおられるように祈るよ。 14 お願いだ。私が生きている限り、主の愛と恵みを示すと約束してくれ。 15 いや、主が君の敵を一掃されたあとも変わりなく、私の子どもたちにまで、主の愛と恵みを示してくれ。」

16 こうして、ヨナタンはダビデの家と契約を結び、「主がダビデの敵に報復してくださるように」と言いました。 17 ダビデを深く愛していたヨナタンは、もう一度誓って、 18 言いました。「明日は新月祭だ。みなは君の席があいているのを気にかけるだろう。 19 あさってになれば、騒ぎだすに違いない。だからこうしよう。前に隠れたことのあるあの石塚のそばにいてくれ。 20 私はその石塚を的にして、正面から三本の矢を放つことにする。 21 それから、少年に矢を拾いにやらせる。その時もし、『それ、矢はこちら側にあるぞ』と私が言うのが聞こえたら、すべてが順調で何も心配ない、ということだと思ってほしい。 22 しかし、『もっと先だ。矢はおまえの向こうにある』と言ったら、すぐに逃げろという意味だ。 23 どうか主が、私たち二人に約束を守らせてくださるように。主がこの約束の証人だ。」

24-25 ダビデは野に身を潜めました。新月の祝いが始まると、王は食事のために、いつもどおり壁を背にして席に着きました。ヨナタンはその向かい側、アブネルは王の隣に着席しましたが、ダビデの席はあいたままです。 26 その日、王は何も言いませんでした。「彼は何か思わぬことで身が汚れ、儀式に出るのを遠慮したのだろう」と思ったからです。 27 しかし、翌日もダビデの席はあいていました。そこでヨナタンに尋ねました。「なぜダビデは昨日も今日も会食に来ないのだ。」

28-29 「家族に祝い事があるからベツレヘムに行かせてほしいと願い出たのです。兄弟からも、ぜひにという要請があり、私が許可して行かせました。」

30 王はヨナタンに怒りを燃やして言いました。「このろくでなしめ! どこの馬の骨かもわからんやつの息子に、王座をくれてやるつもりか。自分ばかりか自分の母親まで辱めおって! このわしの目をごまかせるとでも思っているのか。 31 あいつが生きている限り、おまえは王になれないのだぞ。さあ、ダビデを連れ戻して来い。絶対に殺してやる。」

32 ヨナタンは言い返しました。「ダビデが何をしたというのです。どうして殺さなければならないのですか。」

33 すると、サウルはヨナタンめがけて槍を投げつけ、殺そうとしました。これでついにヨナタンも、父がほんとうにダビデを殺そうとしていることを悟りました。 34 ヨナタンは怒りに震えて食卓から立ち去り、その日は何も食べませんでした。ダビデに対する父のあまりに恥ずべき行為に、ひどく傷ついたからです。

35 翌朝、ヨナタンは打ち合わせどおり、少年を連れて野へ出かけました。 36 「さあ、走って行って、私の射る矢を見つけて来なさい」と言うと、少年は駆けだし、ヨナタンはその向こうに矢を放ちました。 37 少年が矢の届いた地点に近づくと、ヨナタンは大声で叫びました。「矢はもっと向こうにある。 38 急げ、早くしなさい。ぐずぐずするな。」少年は急いで矢を拾うと、主人のもとへ駆け戻りました。 39 もちろん、少年には、ヨナタンのことばの真意などわかるはずもありません。ヨナタンとダビデだけがその意味を知っていたのです。 40 ヨナタンは弓矢を少年に渡し、それを持って町へ帰るように言いました。

41 少年が行ってしまうと、ダビデは隠れていた野の南側から姿を現しました。二人は手を取り合って悲しみ、涙が二人の頬をぬらしました。ダビデは涙もかれ果てるほど声を上げて泣き続けました。 42 ヨナタンが口を開きました。「元気を出してくれ。私たちは、子どもたちの代まで、永遠に主の御手にゆだね合った仲ではないか。」